Thursday, May 30, 2013

American nurseryman Joseph Breck 1794-1873 & his spectacular 1833 circular flower bed


Joseph Breck (1794-1873) of Boston, Massachusetts

Breck, born in Medfield, MA, established his business, Joseph Breck & Company, in 1818 in Boston. From 1822 to 1846, Breck was the editor of the New England Farmer, one of the earliest agricultural magazines established in the U.S., and the first of its kind in New England. In 1833,

In 1840, Breck published his company’s first catalog New England Agricultural Warehouse and Seed Store Catalogue, which was a small book, 84 pages in length.  Breck attempted to use horticulture as an uplifting, educational tool. He included French plant names, listed standard works on horticulture, used illustrations to improve his readers’ tastes. The 1840 catalog featured 72 black-and-white engravings. Breck’s catalog may have been his rural customers only exposure to graphic arts and horticultural literature.

He was one of the founding members of the American Seed Trade Association and a president of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society from 1859-1862. Breck experimented with different forms of catalogs, for one of his schemes he packaged a collection of seeds targeted at specific markets such as the West Indies.  Long essays on gardening were included with the products.  In 1856, he published The Flower Garden, a book about the cultivation of ornamental plants such as perennials, annuals, shrubs and evergreen trees.

Breck Nurseries in 1850, located in Brighton, MA

In 1833, he wrote The Young Florist to educate upcoming generations about natural history and flowers.  In this book, designed "to attract young persons to that delightful employment, the cultivation of a flower garden," he presents a rather complicated plan for a bed of garden flowers. The text is presented as a conversation between an older gardener and his young pupils.



H. You see here a square, within which are three circular beds, or concentric circles, having two rows of figures in each. Now these circles are to be filled with annual flowers, and each number represents a different sort, and you see they are numbered as high as 100, so that I have designed it for one hundred different kinds.

I shall shortly show you a list of these, with their numbers opposite to their respective manes.

I have contrived it so that the tallest plants shall be in the centre and cover an arbor, as you see I have marked. You see a walk from the outside of the square to the arbor, communicating with one large and two smaller circular ones.

For the inner circle of all, such plants as climb to the height of ten feet or more, as the Morning Glory, Flowering Beans, &c., for which it will be necessary to put down birch poles with the branches of the tops left on to form the arbor.

For the second row you will find I have selected Sweet Peas, Cypress Vine, Nasturtium, &c. which are also climbers, and will require brush for their support, neatly trimmed, about four and a half feet high.

For the third circular row, the tallest plants which do not climb; and each successive circle of plants diminishes in height to the outer one, which is composed of dwarfs--and you will find by inspecting the key that no two kinds or colors of flowers come together, so that when it is all in bloom, it will have the appearance of a cone of flowers of every shape, color and shade tastefully intermingled, as represented in the following drawing; in which, however, I have not introduced any arbor, which can be done or not, at pleasure.

M. This will be beautiful, surely, and must have taken some time and patience to arrange it; but I think it will be a perplexing piece of work to transfer it to the ground, and have all the plants sowed in the place you have allotted them.

H. Nothing will be easier, as you will see when I come to lay it out and sow them.

M. What is to be put in the outer part of the figure, and what is the meaning of the letters?

H. That is the place for the perennial plants that we have in our little garden, and for such as we may procure from other gardens and the fields, and may be arranged in any fanciful manner we please. The letters represent fanciful groups of flowers to be in bloom at the same time, for different months of the year, to be composed of annuals and perennials. Ju. for July, Au. for August, A. for April, M. for May, &c., and here you may have opportunity to exercise your taste.

M. That will please me; and by the time you get the ground in readiness, I will exhibit a plan for every month in the season. I wish you would give me a copy of that part which contains the annuals, as I wish to send it to cousin Eliza; she had but a small piece of ground and her father has no place of his own, and or course does not want to be at the expense of cultivating many perennials, as he moves so often from one place to another.

H. I shall be happy to furnish you with a copy for her, and will also send her a portion of our seeds, with directions how to cultivate them. On the following pages you will see a list of the plants arranged in order; you will find some numbers and plants inserted twice; this is done to fill out the circle; and some of them are very showy. Be particular not to make any mistake while you write it off for her.

A KEY TO THE PLAN FOR A GARDEN.

First Circle.
No.
1 Scarlet Flowering Bean, scarlet.
2 Blue Morning Glory, dark and light blue.
3 White Flowering Bean, white.
4 Rose Morning Glory, purplish red.
5 Purple Flowering Bean, purple.
6 Superb Striped Morning Glory, white striped.
7 Scarlet Morning Glory, or Ipomea, scarlet.
8 Two Colored Lemon Gourd (ornamental fruit), yellow.
9 Starry Ipomea, delicate blue.

Second Circle
No.
10 Nasturtium, deep orange.
11 Scarlet Sweet Pea, red.
12 Balloon Vine, white, curious seed pods.
13 Purple Sweet Pea, purple.
14 Mexican Ximenisia, yellow.
15 Cypress Vine, brilliant crimson.
16 White Sweet Pea, white.
10 Nasturtium, deep orange.
17 Tangiers Crimson Sweet Pea, dark crimson.
12 Balloon Vine, white.
15 Cypress Vine (scald this seed), crimson.

Third Circle
No.
18 Red Four o’Clock, deep red.
19 Violet Zinnia, violet.
20 Yellow Immortal Flower, brilliant yellow.
21 White Chrysanthemum, white.
22 Prince’s Feather, very dark red.
23 Tall Blue Larkspur, lively blue.
24 Yellow Four o’Clock, yellow.
25 Variegated Euphorbia, elegantly variegated white and green.
26 Red Lavatera, light red strip’d with deep.
27 Blue Commelina, celestial blue.
28 Yellow Chrysanthemum, yellow.
29 White Lavatera, pure white.
30 Love Lies Bleeding, blood red.
19 Violet Zinnia, violet.
20 Yellow Immortal Flower, brilliant yellow.
21 Variegated Euphorbia, white and green.
26 Red Lavatera, light red.

Fourth Circle
No.
31 Grand Flowering Argemone, elegant white flower and yellow centre.
32 Yellow Zinnia, tawny yellow.
33 American Centaurea, pale purple.
34 Tricolored Amaranthus, each leaf red, yellow and brown.
35 Long Flowered Four o’Clock, white with purple centre.
36 Grand Flowering Evening Primrose, yellow.
37 Purple Amaranthus (soak the seed in milk 24 hours), purple.
38 Red Zinnia, red.
39 White Amaranthus (soak the seed in milk 24 hours), white.
40 Golden Coreopsis, fine yellow with brown centre.
41 Red Opium Poppy, purplish red.
42 Crimson cockscomb, deep crimson.
35 Long Flowering Four o’Clock, white with purple.
43 African Marigold, orange.
37 Purple Amaranthus, purple.
34 Tricolored Amaranthus, yellow, red and brown.
39 White Amaranthus, white.
44 French Marigold, brown velvet orange.
41 Red Opium Poppy, purplish red.
42 Crimson Cockscomb, deep crimson.
46 Night Flowering Primrose, yellow.
27 Commelina, bright blue.

Fifth Circle
47 Tricolored Chrysanthemum, white, yellow and brown.
48 D’ble white and variegated Balsams, white and variegated.
49 Fennel Flower or Love in a Mist, blue.
50 Red Quilled Aster, red.
51 Long Flowered Evening Primrose, yellow.
52 White Expanded Aster, white.
53. Blue Lupin, blue.
54 Double Carnation Poppy, of sorts, red, pin, &c.
55 Yellow Hawkweed or Crepis Barbata, yellow and brown.
56 White Quilled Aster, white.
57. Blue Bottle, blue.
58 Fire Colored and Crimson Balsams, red.
59 Scorzonera, deep yellow and brown.
60 Double White Fringed Poppy, pure white.
61 Purple and Lilac expanded Aster, purple and lilac.
62 Scarlet Malope, red, with purplish stripe.
63 Pot Marigold, orange.
64 White Catchlfy, white.
65 Lemon Balm, blue and fine scent.
66 African Rose, every shade of red.
67 Beautiful Ketmia, straw and purple.
68 Variegated Asters, white, with blue and red stripes.
69 Azure blue Gilia, fine blue.
70 Red Quilled Aster, red.
45 African Hibiscus, straw and deep purple.
71 Sweet Basil, or Lavender, white with delightful scent.
72 Mexican Ageratum, blue
73 Double Purple Balsams, purple.
66 African Rose, every shade of red.
55 Yellow Hawkweed, yellow and brown.
60 White Fringed Poppy, pure white.
69 Azure Blue Gilia, blue.
74 Convolvulus Minor, fine blue and yellow.
75 Scarlet Cacalia, scarlet.
76 Snails, yellow, with curious pod.
77 Sweet Alyssum, white sweet scented.
78 Purple Candytuft, purple.
79 Daisy Leaved Catchfly, fine pink.
80 Caterpillars, yellow, with curious pod.
81 White Evening Primrose, pure white.
82 Double Dwarf Larkspur, purple, pink and white.
83 Lobel’s Catchfly, red.
84 Mignonette, yellowish, very fragrant.
85 White Candytuft, white.
86 Purple Immortal Flower, fine light purple.
87 Beautiful Clarkea, red.
88 Horns, yellow, curious pod.
89 Venus’ Looking Glass, blue.
90 Red Hawkweed, pale red.
91 Hedgehogs, yellow, curious pod.
74 Convolvulus Minor, fine blue and yellow centre.
75 Scarlet Cacalia, fine scarlet.
84 Mignonette, yellowish, very fragrant.
77 Sweet Alyssum, white and fragrant.
92 Wing Leaved Schizanthus, light and dark, purple and yellow.
93 Sensitive Plant, pink, very curious plant.
94 Coronilla, beautiful leaf, yellow.
95 Ice Plant, curious plant, white.
96 Nolana, light and dark blue.
83 Lobel’s Catchfly, red.
84 Mignonete, yellowish, fragrant.
81 White Evening Primrose, white.
97 Forget-me-not, blue.
79 Daisy Leaved Catchfly, fine pink.
98 Thunbergia, fine new plant - yellow and brown.
99 Heart’s Ease, purple, yellow and white.
87 Beautiful Clarkea, red.
100 Purple Jacobea, purple.
.

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

Spreading Large Gentry Gardens to the small plots of Townsfolk & Baroness Hyde de Neuville c1749-1849


Spreading Gardening from the Gentry to the Townsfolk

1809 Anne-Marguérite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny, Baroness Hyde de Neuville (French, ca. 1749–1849) The fairly modest Moreau House in New Jersey including statues, flower pots, & a little girl with a rake.

One of Irish immigrant seedsman & author Bernard M’Mahon's (1775-1816) goals, as he was writing his 1806 The American Gardener's Calendar was to spread gardening to urban shopkeepers & artisans. These townsfolk, recently arrived from the farms & plantations of America's 18th-century agrarian economy or from abroad, were finding themselves with disposible income but living in unfamiliar, crowded city streets.  During the Revolution, British naval blockades cutting off imports from abroad forced farmers & planters to make their own textiles & home goods, as they severely reduced the tobacco & grains they had been producing for export.  Markets in northern cities became the source for credit & for formerly imported products. By the last decade of the 18th-century, merchants in towns like Baltimore controlled the merchandise supply lines in & out of the region from Europe, nothern American towns, & the West Indies.   Sons & daughters of farmers & planters moved to town to work in the new economy.  Only a small patch of land was available to them there to plant gardens, but M'Mahon realized that the more folks who gardened, the more seeds, plants, tools, & books he would sell.  He was one of the new entrepeneurs from abroad.

1810 Anne-Marguérite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny, Baroness Hyde de Neuville (French, ca. 1749–1849)  Corner Greenwich 

1810 Anne-Marguérite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny, Baroness Hyde de Neuville (French, ca. 1749–1849) Detail Corner Greenwich

1810 Anne-Marguérite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny, Baroness Hyde de Neuville (French, ca. 1749–1849) Detail Corner Greenwich

America, Baroness Hyde de Neuville, (Anne Marguerite Henriette de Marigny Hyde de Neuville), arrived in New Jersey from France, with her husband, in 1807.  They were escaping the results of the French Revolution, as the privileged fled from a vindictive egalitarianism. They would find themselves in a new republic, where those from the farms & plantations were making their way west or flooding into the growing towns along the Atlantic coast. The Baroness would document in watercolors the new egalitarian life in the former British colonies during the Federalist era, especially in its growing towns.

1807 Anne-Marguérite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny, Baroness Hyde de Neuville (French, ca. 1749–1849) View of Utica (New York) from the Hotel

After the French Revolution, she secured the life & safe passage of her husband, who was a royalist, by traveling alone across Europe to intercede with Napoleon.  In order for the couple to escape from France, she posed as her husband’s mother, until they arrived safely in the U.S. They settled on a merino sheep farm in the New Brunswick area.  For a number of years, the couple journeyed to New York City & to various settlements along the Hudson. The Baroness recorded what she saw.  She saw few town gardens.  America's seed dealers & nurserymen were working hard to change that.

Anne-Marguérite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny, Baroness Hyde de Neuville (French, ca. 1749–1849)

Many townsfolk gardened in traditional geometric plots, usually defined by walkways on their smaller lots. Craftsmen such as William Faris (1729-1804), who lacked sufficient space on their small town lots to develop classical falling terraces but wished to copy the designs used by the grander families, adopted traditional geometric garden styles that more closely resembled the miniature formal garden adaptations of the Dutch.  Land in Holland was often only a thin layer of soil unable to support the deep roots of trees, so the Dutch planted low hedges instead. As the Dutch population grew, their gardens became more compact as well. While the sophisticated French thought flowers too common & certainly not as controllable as the gravel they used in their parterres, the Dutch were avid flower growers.  That tradition appealed to America's new city dwellers.

 1817 Anne-Marguérite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny, Baroness Hyde de Neuville (French, ca. 1749–1849) F St DC

After Napoleon was defeated & the King restored to the throne, the de Neuvilles returned to France.  However, the Baron was rewarded for his loyalty & named French Ambassador to the United States, so the couple returned to take up residency in the new capital, Washington.  Baroness Hyde de Neuville continued to produce watercolors depicting life during the Federalist era.

1818 Anne-Marguérite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny, Baroness Hyde de Neuville (French, ca. 1749–1849) Home in Washington to the French ambassador

American devotion to compact urban flower gardens could be particularly profitable for M’Mahon, who sold flower seeds, plants, & bulbs, devoted much of his landmark book to the cultivation of flowers.

1813 Anne-Marguérite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny, Baroness Hyde de Neuville (French, ca. 1749–1849) The Cottage

Urban Americans were appreciative of their little town gardens. In Philadelphia, Quaker Elizabeth Drinker (1735-1807) wrote in her diary on April 10, 1796, “Our Yard & Garden looks more beautiful, the Trees in full Bloom, the red & white blossoms intermix’d with the green leaves, which are just putting our flowers of several sorts blom in our little Garden--what a favour it is, to have room enough in the City…many worthy persons are pent up in small houses with little or no lotts, which is very trying in hott weather."


Monday, May 27, 2013

Historic American Seed and Plant Catalogs from Smithsonian Institution Libraries



Memorial Day weekend - Mountain Laurel & Peter Kalm 1716-1779




Memorial Day weekend always brings 3 things to my mind.  - The peonies that my mother & I gathered to place on the graves of loved ones, when I was a child in Indiana.  - The incredible bravery of my great grandfather & his 2 brothers who left the South to go to Illinois to enlist in the Civil War to fight for the Union. - And, way up here in the woods where we live, the mountain laurel always bloom on Memorial Day.  The amazing blooms line the lane up to our house, and they define the area between the grass & the woods surrounding our house.  A soft, sweet, beautiful reminder of the meaning of the day.




The American mountain laurel was named Kalmia latifolia during the 1700s, when America was still just a collection of colonies.  The plant was first recorded in America in 1624, soon after the English began to settle along the Atlantic coast.  The genus Kalmia was named by Carolus Linneaus himself, for his student Pehr (Peter) Kalm, who sailed across the Atlantic to travel through the countryside collecting plant samples to send back to Sweden. In Kalm’s account of Mountain Laurel, he calls the plant the “spoon tree.”















Sunday, May 26, 2013

Botany spreads to the common man in the early Republic & flowers reappear


From Flowers to Grass to Flowers with Proper, Scientific Names

During & immediately after the Revolution, many gardeners began banishing intricate patterns of flowers in favor of the less ostentatious simplicity of turf. Philadelphian Elizabeth Drinker wrote in her diary, “flower roots…were dug out of ye beds on ye south side of our garden--as my husband intends making grass-plots and planting trees.”

During this period, plain grass flats often defined the terraces of the gentry. However, at the same time, a flood of newly arrived professional seed merchants were enticing the growing gardening public to plant curious bulbs & roots imported from Europe. And the middle class merchants and artisans were beginning to accumulate both leisure time that could be spent in improving their homes and grounds and a bit of extra cash to spend toward this end.  This flurry of marketing paid off, and the style that caught on. By the 1790s, specimen gardens & flowers once again flourished in the Chesapeake.

By the turn of the century, the popularity of intricate flower beds once again soared.  Flowers remained a garden favorite, but gardeners now tended to segregated flowers by type rather than integrating them into a complicated design.  Diarist Anne Grant reported that, in the gardens she saw before the Revolution, flowers “not seen in ‘curious knots’, were ranged in beds, the varieties of each kind by themselves.”

In the 2nd half of 18th-century America, small private & public botanical gardens were beginning to appear in the colonies & early Republic.  The public was becoming more familiar with the study of botany.  They were aware of the concept of botanical gardens which were the most structured way of observing plants where similar plants were grown & displayed together, often arranged by plant families, & labeled for easy reference.


The Paduan Garden, in Roberto de Visiani’s L’Orto Botanico de Padova nell’ anno MDCCCXLII (Padova, 1842, frontis.).

The great age of plant discovery which began in the 16th century with the exploration of the Americas triggered an interest in the scientific study & classification of plants. The plants & seeds which made their way to Europe from foreign ports were cultivated to determine their potential uses. At first this was chiefly to determine their potential medical applications.  The great botanical gardens founded in the 16th century at Padua, Leiden, & Montpellier were attached to medical schools.


Johannes van Meurs, 1579-16 Leiden University Garden. Engraving after a design by W. Swanenburgh (1608), from Orlers (1614).

The Hortus Botanicus in Leiden was established soon after the founding of the university in 1575. The head of the early garden there was Charles de l’Ecluse (1526–1609) or Clusius, who had a wide network of correspondents across Europe & had written extensively on botanical subjects. In 1593, he brought with him from Frankfurt a great number of seeds, bulbs & plants to form the foundation of the garden, which had about 1,000 plants when it opened. Other distinguished botanists associated with the garden were Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738) & Johannes Fredericus Gronovius (1686–1762), an early patron of Carolus Linnaeus(Carl Linnaeus, Swedish Carl von Linné) 1707-1778, who would transform plant collecting with his uniform system for classifying them (binomial nomenclature).


Oxford Botanic Garden

The Oxford Botanic Garden was founded in 1623, by Henry Danvers, later the 1st Earl of Danby (1573–1643), but was not planted until at least a decade later. Danby had arranged to appoint the great London-based gardener & plant collector John Tradescant the elder (1570-1638) as the first gardener, & there is some evidence that Tradescant may have been briefly involved in the planting before he died. Danby then appointed the German botanist Jacob Bobart (1599–1680) as gardener, who was succeeded by his son, also named Jacob Bobart (1641–1719). The 1st catalogue, listing some 1400 plants growing in the garden, was published in 1648.


Chelsea Physic Garden established in the grounds of Chelsea Manor owned by Hans Sloane. Engraving by John Haynes, 30th March 1751.

In England, the Chelsea Physic Garden, founded by the Society of Apothecaries in 1673, came to prominence under Scottish gardener Philip Miller (1691-1771) & remained the premier garden in the country during much of Miller’s lifetime. Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753) had granted the Society a perpetual lease on the Chelsea property, & one of the conditions was that each year 50 new plants were to be described & donated to the Royal Society as dried specimens. This required the continuous introduction of new plants & ensured that Chelsea was at the forefront of knowledge about their cultivation. Miller was a highly skilled horticulturist & many imported plants & rare species of indigenous plants were successfully grown by him at Chelsea. Miller  networked, & he was at the center of a vast network of plant enthusiasts exchaning plants & seeds with other gardeners throughout Britain, her colonies, & Europe.


 Pagoda & Temperate House, Kew Gardens

As Chelsea was fading in the latter part of the 18th century, the great gardens at Kew were growing in importance under the leadership of Sir Joseph Banks & head gardener William Aiton (1731–1793) who had trained under Philip Miller at Chelsea. Aiton produced the 1st printed catalogue of the gardens at Kew, listing some 5600 species. Just over two decades later, the 2nd edition of the catalogue by his son William Townsend Aiton (1766–1849) listed over 11,000 species.


In London, street vendors were selling plants door to door. New Cries of London Sold by Darton and Harvey 1803 Flowers for your Garden

In Philadelphia, Bartram's is America's oldest surviving botanic garden. John Bartram (1699-1777), early American botanist, explorer, & plant collector, began his garden in 1728, when he purchased a 102-acre farm close to Germantown. Bartram's Garden grew into an extensive collection of familiar & intriguing native plants; as he devoted his life to the discovery of examples of new North American species. Bartram's lucrative business centered on the transatlantic transfer of plants.

In 1748, what is now Lafayette & Astor Place, was New York City’s first botanical garden, established by a Swiss physician, Jacob Sperry, who farmed flowers & hothouse plants. Jacob Sperry, born in Zurich in 1728, came to New York at the age of 20, & although educated a physician, decided to become a florist. He had means at his command, with which he purchased this then uncultivated tract of pasture land, & established himself as a horticulturist. He built a house near by, where he resided, rearing a family of 4 sons & 5 daughters. In 1804, Jacob Sperry sold the much improved property to John Jacob Astor for $45,000.


An 1801 map of the Astor Place when it was the land of Jacob Sperry, a Swiss florist, physician, and gentleman.

In the British American colonies, just as in Europe, many early botanical gardens focused on the medicinal uses of plants being collected.  In 1769, Dr Peter Middleton, professor of medicine at King's College, speaking at the opening of the Columbia Medical School in New York City stated, "By botany, we are  instructed in the natural history and distinguishing characters of plants. This, pursued as a science, or branch of medical study, presents to us a fund of knowledge, both valuable and ornamental  As this continent yields most of the medical plants now in use, and abounds also with a variety of others, whose qualities we are as  yet but little acquainted with... a teacher of botany will soon be appointed, and a botanical garden laid out, and properly furnished? This would open an extensive field for further discoveries in, and for large acquisitions to the materia medicia."  David Hosack, who would eventually establish the Elgin Botanic Garden, reported that in 1794, the New York Agricultural Society was endorsing that the botanical garden be connected with an endowed professorship in Botany.  In the next 20 years, botanical gardens would pop up at Harvard, Princeton, and at the universities of Pennsylvania & South Carolina.


 Botanic Garden at Elgin in the Vicinity of the City of New York. About 1806 William Satchwell Leney (American artist, b. England, 1769–1831) after Louis Simond (American artist, b. France, 1767–1831)

By 1785, George Washington had dedicated a part of his gardens to botany.  He wrote in his July diary, "Sewed one half of the Chinese Seed given me by Mr. Porter and Doctr. Craik in three rows in the Section near the Quarter (in my Botanical Garden.)"  In June of the next year, Washington recorded dining with Francois Andre Micheaux, "a Botanist sent by the Court of France to America...he returned afterwards to Alexandria on his way to New York...where he was about to establish a Botanical Garden."

In 1787, Rev Manassah Cutler wrote that Dr Benjamin Rush was "endeavoring to raise a fund for establishing a Botanical garden" in Philadelphia.

In both England & in the early American republic, botany & new classification systems for plants caused a surge in collecting plants. In 1789, William Hamilton instructed the gardeners at his Philadelphia estate, Woodlands, to plant “exotic bulbous roots…at six or eight Inches from each other…taking care to preserve the distinctions of the sorts.”


18th-century woodcut

In 1805, Rosalie Steir Calvert (1778–1821) wrote to her father from Riversdale in Prince George's County, Maryland, "The fancy for flowers of all kinds is really increasing; everyone takes an interest, and it is a great honor to have the most beautiful.”

The next spring, she was “curious to know if it is becoming fashionable in your country to become horticulturalists. Here we occupy ourselves with that more every day and are getting much better.”

Her father sent tulip bulbs in late 1807, and Rosalie Calvert wrote back, “now I will have the most beautiful collection in America, and I assure you my reputation is already quite exalted.”


In London, street vendors were selling plants door to door.  Tuer, Andrew White, 1838-1900 Old London street cries (1885) All a Blowin', Choice Shrubs and Plants, Alive and Growing

In the early republic, townsfolk began to frequent the local nurseries popping up in towns up and down the Atlantic coast.  A new cycle in English & early American pleasure gardening had begun.


In London, street vendors were selling plants door to door.  London Melodies; or Cries of the Seasons. Published anonymously (before 1818) All a Blowin, Choice Shrubs and Plants, Alive and Growing


Wednesday, May 22, 2013

Thomas Jefferson's Books on Landscape, Garden, & Farm


Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Virginia lawyer, diplomat, & statesman. Author of the Declaration of American Independence; of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom; & Father of the University of Virginia. First American Secretary of State, & t3rd president of the United States.

Thomas Jefferson by John Trumbull (1756-1843). Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc., Monticello, Virginia.

Thomas Jefferson was a lifelong, insatiable collector of books. From his book lists & correspondence, scholars know that he had the following book collections. Of these, only the books sold to Congress (section d below) are currently represented in this listing of landscape, garden, & farming books.

Shadwell Library (1757 to 1770)
Jefferson inherited his first library from his father, Peter Jefferson, when the latter died in 1757. On 1 February 1770, a fire destroyed almost all of the books in Jefferson’s home at Shadwell. 

Monticello Library Eventually Sold to Congress in 1815
(circa 1770s to 1815)

Jefferson’s second library & his largest is the book collection he began at Monticello following the fire at Shadwell.  Following the Shadwell fire on 1 February 1770, Jefferson wasted no time in replacing the library he lost.  In his letter to Robert Skipwith dated 3 August 1771, Jefferson invites Skipwith to the “new Rowanty,” evidently a reference to Monticello, his own "mountain of the world," or "Rowandiz, the Accadian Olympos," & to his library there.   Within this 2nd library collection, scholars identify the following sub-collections:

a March 1783 Library Reconstructed (circa 1770s to 6 March 1783)
By 4 August 1773, Jefferson notes in his Memorandum Books a count of 1,256 volumes in his library at Monticello. In 1784 as he left America to take up his appointment by Congress as minister plenipotentiary to France, he may have had with him a catalog of the books he owned, along with titles he wished to acquire abroad. Earlier the previous year in Philadelphia, he had noted on page 5 of this catalog a count of 2,640 volumes as of 6 March 1783. He also states that he had placed a checkmark before each title he owned, & that unmarked titles indicate books that he hoped to acquire. Using this specific notation recorded by Jefferson himself in his 1783 Catalog, scholar Thomas Baughn has reconstructed a list of books that Jefferson owned as of this date. A list of this March 1783 Library Reconstructed library is available here.

b Books Acquired While in Europe (1784 to 1789)
During his appointment as minister plenipotentiary & later minister to France from 1784 to 1789, Jefferson purchased some 2,000 volumes. Before he returned to America in 1789, he compiled a separate list of the books he acquired while abroad. This 1789 Catalog is a 50-page unbound manuscript in Jefferson’s own hand & is today at the Massachusetts Historical Society. The manuscript pages have been digitized by the Society & are available here. A transcription of this manuscript made by Thomas Baughn is available here.

c 1783 Catalog (circa 1770s to 1812)
The 1783 Catalog manuscript, a 246-page bound manuscript in Jefferson’s hand, is believed to be a record of his library following the Shadwell fire in 1770. In 1812, when this catalogue became crammed with interlineations, erasures, & marginal insertions, Jefferson made a fair copy of this catalogue, that he probably maintained for his offer to sell his library to Congress in 1814. The 1783 Catalog is today at the Massachusetts Historical Society, available here. A transcription of this manuscript made by Thomas Baughn is available here.

d Books Sold to Congress (1815)
When the invading British army burned the congressional library in Washington, D.C. in 1814, an outraged Jefferson promptly offered his own library of 6,700 volumes to Congress to replace the one that was lost.  A 5-volume work, The Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, was published between 1952 & 1959. This is available online here through the Library of Congress; a transcribed electronic version of Sowerby's catalogue is available here.  There is a 2nd manuscript associated with the books Jefferson sold to Congress. In 1823 Jefferson commissioned Nicholas Philip Trist, the young man who would eventually become Jefferson’s private secretary & his grandson-in-law, to recreate a list of the books sold to Congress. This 113-page Trist Catalogue manuscript was rediscovered at the Library of Congress, available online here.

Retirement Library (1815 to 1826)
Following the 1815 sale of the bulk of his library to Congress, Jefferson continued to acquire books. The Retirement Library Catalogue in Jefferson’s own hand constituted his 3rd & final library at Monticello. The 83-page bound manuscript is at the Library of Congress, & is available online here, with a transcription available here. After Jefferson died in 1826, his library at Monticello was sold at auction through auctioneer, Nathaniel P. Poor, in 1829 in Washington, D.C. The printed Poor Catalogue is available online here.

Poplar Forest Library (1811 to 1826)
After Jefferson’s retirement from public office in 1809, he also maintained a library at his Poplar Forest retreat in Bedford County from around 1811. At his death, his books were inherited by his grandson, Francis Eppes, who offered them up for sale in 1873. There is no separate sale catalogue for this library, except for the portion that was listed in the 1873 auction catalogue of George A. Leavitt, published in New York City. The Leavitt Catalogue was transcribed by John R. Barden in 1999, & edited by Thomas Baughn, & is available here.

For more information, go to the Thomas Jefferson's Libraries website at Monticello. See also the Library of Congress' interactive exhibit, Thomas Jefferson's Library.


Jefferson's Books on Landscape, Garden, & Farm

Abercrombie, John Every man his own gardener Being a new, and much more complete, gardener's kalendar than any one hitherto published 1767

Abercrombie, John The gardener's pocket dictionary ; or, a systematic arrangement of trees, shrubs, herbs, flowers and fruits 1786

Agricola, Georg Andreas The experimental husbandman and gardener: containing a new method of improving estates and gardens 1726
 
Ambler, Jacquelin A treatise on the culture of lucerne 1800
  
Baird, Thomas General view of the agriculture of the County of Middlesex 1793
  
Bakewell, Robert Observations on the influence of soil and climate upon wool 1808

Belsches, R. General view of the agriculture of the county of Stirling 1796
  
Billingsley, John General view of the agriculture in the county of Somerset 1794
   
Binns, John Alexander A treatise on practical farming; embracing particularly the following subjects, viz. the use of plaister of Paris 1803
 
Bordley, John Beale Sketches on rotations of crops, and other rural matters, To which are annexed Intimations on manufactures 1797
   
Bordley, John Beale Essays and notes on husbandry and rural affairs 1799
  
Bordley, John Beale Sketches on rotations of crops, and other rural matters
   
Bordley, John Beale Outlines of a plan, for establishing a state society of agriculture in Pennsylvania 1794
 
Bordley, John Beale Country habitations 1798
   
Bordley, John Beale Husbandry, dependant on Live Stock 1799

Bordley, John Beale Hemp 1799

Bradley, Richard New improvements of planting and gardening : both philosophical and practical 1726   

Bradley, Richard A General treatise of husbandry and gardening 1724
 
Bradley, Richard Ten practical discourses concerning the four elements, as they relate to the growth of plants 1733 

Chambers, Sir William Plans, elevations, sections, and perspective views of the gardens and buildings at Kew, in Surry 1763
    
Custis, George Washington Parke An address to the people of the United States, on the importance of encouraging agriculture & domestic manufactures 1808   

Daubenton, Louis Jean Marie Advice to shepherds and owners of flocks on the care and management of sheep 1810   

Dezallier d'Argentville, Antoine Joseph The theory and practice of gardening 1728   

Dickson, Adam The husbandry of the ancients 1788
 
Donaldson, James General view of the agriculture of the county of Northampton 1794
 
Erskine, John Francis General view of the agriculture of the county of Clackmannan 1795
   
Evelyn, John Terra: a philosophical discourse of earth 1787
 
Evelyn, John Sylva, or, A discourse of forest-trees, and the propagation of timber in His
Majesties dominions 1664
  
Fordyce, George Elements of agriculture and vegetation 1771
   
Forsyth, William A treatise on the culture and management of fruit-trees 1802    

Gardiner, John The American gardener: containing ample directions for working a kitchen garden, every month in the year 1804
  
Hale, Thomas A compleat body of husbandry 1758
  
Hales, Stephen Statical essays; containing Vegetable Staticks 1738
 
Heely, Joseph Letters on the beauties of Hagley, Envil, and the Leasowes 1777
 
Hepburn, Sir George Buchan General view of the agriculture and rural economy of East Lothian 1794

Home, Francis The principles of agriculture and vegetation 1762
   
Home, Lord Kames, Henry The gentleman farmer 1779
  
Jacob, Giles The country gentleman's vade mecum 1717
   
Kirwan, Richard The manures most advantageously applicable to the various sorts of soils, and the causes of their beneficial effect 1796
   
Langley, Batty Pomona: or, the Fruit-Garden Illustrated 1729
    
Livingston, Robert R. Essay on sheep; their varieties--account of the merinoes of Spain, France &c 1809

Logan, George Fourteen agricultural experiments, to ascertain the best rotation of crops 1797

Logan, George A letter to the citizens of Pennsylvania, on the necessity of promoting agriculture, manufactures & the useful arts 1800
 
M'Mahon, Bernard The American gardener's calendar; adapted to the climates and seasons of the United States 1806   

Main, Thomas Directions for the transplantation and management of young thorn or other hedge plants 1807
 
Miller, Philip The gardeners kalendar ; directing what works are necessary to be performed every month 1765

Miller, Philip The gardener's dictionary : containing the best and newest methods of cultivating 1768
   
Moore, Thomas The great error of American agriculture exposed : and hints for improvement suggested 1801
  
Mortimer, John The whole art of husbandry: or, The way of managing and improving of land 1721
   
Naismith, John Observations on the different breeds of sheep and the state of sheep farming, in the southern districts of Scotland 1795
   
Parkinson, Richard The experienced farmer 1799

Parry, R. Particulars of the breeding stock, late the property of Mr. Robert Fowler, of Little Rollright 1791

Pearce, William General view of the agriculture in Berkshire 1794
  
Peters, Richard Agricultural enquiries on plaister of Paris, also, facts, observations, and conjectures on that substance 1797
   
Pitt, William General view of the agriculture of the county of Stafford 1794
  
Randolph, John A treatise on gardening 1793 

Seeley, Benton Stowe : a description of the magnificent house and gardens of the Right
Honourable Richard Grenville Temple 1783
     
Spurrier, John The practical farmer: being a new and compendious system of husbandry 1793 
 
Stone, Thomas General view of the agriculture of the county of Huntingdon 1793
  
Strickland, Sir William Observations on the agriculture of the United States of America 1801

Taylor, John Arator; being a series of agricultural essays 1813
    
Ure, David General view of the agriculture of the County of Kinross 1797    

Vancouver, Charles General view of the agriculture in the county of Essex 1795

Whately, Thomas Observations on modern gardening 1770
   
Young, Arthur Rural oeconomy, or, Essays on the practical parts of husbandry 1773
 
Young, Arthur Proceedings of His Majesty's most honourable Privy council, and information received, respecting an insect 1789
   
Young, Arthur The farmer's guide in hiring and stocking farms 1771

Young, Arthur Travels during the years 1787, 1788 and 1789 1793  

For more Legacy Libraries go to Library Thing.

Monday, May 20, 2013

An unusual early American garden + a little gossip in Portsmouth, New Hampshire


In 1740, Nathaniel Merserve (1705-1758) built his dwelling on the tidal North Mill Pond near his shipyard in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was the owner of the largest shipyard in Portsmouth, by then famous for its shipbuilding facilities. His home was contiguous to his shipyard; where he constructed a 50 gun frigate in 1749, for the Royal Navy called The America.  In the capture of Louisburg from the French in 1745, he was Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment which New Hampshire raised for the expedition; & in 1758, he sailed for the 2nd siege of the place with 168 carpenters. Soon after their arrival at Cape Breton, "his whole party, except sixteen, were seized with smallpox, of which disorder Colonel Meserve & his eldest son died." (1913 Harold Hotchkiss Bennett)

1774 The South West Prospect of the Seat of Colonel George Boyd of Portsmouth, New Hampshire

In 1763, the house was purchased by Peter Livius (1739-1795), son of a Hamburg German employed in an English factory at Lisbon. His British mother sent him to school in England where, in 1758, he married the daughter of wealthy Colonel John Tufton Mason.  In 1763, the newly rich Livius moved from England to New Hampshire, where his wife’s family had large land claims. He immediately established a lavish style in Portsmouth, showing a remarkable ability to generate personal animosities.  He attempted to buy his credentials in New England colonial society by a large gift of books to Harvard College in 1764, from which he did receive an honorary degree 3 years later. In September 1765, his wife's English connections put him on the council of New Hampshire; & in 1768, he became justice of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas. He was accused of partiality as a judge, even of counseling litigants who were to appear before him. Governor Benning Wentworth, with whom he had earlier quarrelled over land grants, even alleged that Livis had been “a principal Abettor in the Disturbances at the Time of the Stamp Act.” In 1772, Wentworth removed Livius from the bench.  The irate Livius returned to London.

Col. George Boyd,  one of Portsmouth’s wealthiest merchants before the Revolution, "purchased ... the mansion & ship-yard, of Peter Livius...He enlarged the house, materially. His garden in front extended to the site of the present depot...& water bounded his premises on the east. It was a magnificent seat, such as a nabob might envy, enclosed within a white open fence, & at regular intervals of some forty or fifty feet, those handsomely carved towering Grenadier's heads were placed on posts, & presented a very unique appearance...His gardener, John Cunningham, (who died a few years since, at the age of ninety-four) he also sent over from England, at an earlier date." (1859 Charles Warren Brewster)

1774 The South West Prospect of the Seat of Colonel George Boyd of Portsmouth, New Hampshire Detail

Boyd's garden is somewhat of a curiousity, even beyond the Grenadier's heads on the fence posts.  Boyd fenced his newly enlarged pleasure grounds with white fences painted red on the side near the road, which was popular in New England a that time.  The garden had a traditional central walkway leading out from the main door of the house, but here the plan diverged from the conventional.  In the middle of the garden, Boyd placed a basin, perhaps to contain fresh water, rather than salt water, for his garden, or perhaps as a home to fish.  He had probably seen such basons on his trips to England to purchase goods.  He built 5 walkways, not the usual 4, radiating from his bason in an irregular pattern, & along only one side he dug a canal, the length of the garden.  From the many buildings of one color which he erected, his estate became known as the "White Village."

Much to the consternation of the local patriotic officials, "during the Revolution, Colonel Boyd found it convenient to live in England, but upon the conclusion of peace, decided to return, bringing a new & handsome coach, an English coachman ... & an elegant monument for his grave at some future time. He found an earlier use for this possession than he anticipated, for two days before the arrival of the ship, on October 8, 1787, he died, and took his place in the North Cemetery instead of in his magnificent mansion with it's spacious garden." (1913 Harold Hotchkiss Bennett)

1774 The Estate of Col. Nathaniel Meserve 1705-1758 Portsmouth, NH 1740 Portsmouth Times, 18 October 1924

In the year 1832, George Raynes (1799-1855) bought the estate, & the family maintained a shipyard there until 1865, building between 60 & 70 vessels.  After George Raynes' death, the family entered a lawsuit contesting the will & the ownership of the business, which lasted for years.  The mansion on the south shore of the North Mill Pond, was demolished in 1938.  Rather amazingly, a depiction of the house & garden remains from a Portsmouth newspaper article published in 1924.

~Charles Warren Brewster, William Henry Young Hackett, Lawerence Shorey.  Rambles about Portsmouth: Sketches of Persons, Localities, & Incidents of Two Centuries: Principally from Tradition & Unpublished Documents, Volume 1.  Published by C.W. Brewster & Son, Portsmouth Journal Office, 1859 - Portsmouth, N.H.
~Caleb Stevens Gurney. Portsmouth, historic & picturesque: a volume of information. Self Published by C. S. Gurney, 1902 - Portsmouth, N.H.
~Harold Hotchkiss Bennett  Vignettes of Portsmouth: being representations of divers historic places in old Portsmouth. Published by H. Pearson & H. H. Bennett, 1913
~Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online.  1771-1800 (Volume IV)

~The New Hampshire Reports. Volume 54. New Hampshire. Supreme Court, Joel Parker. Capital Offset Company, 1875

Saturday, May 18, 2013

1764 Lavender in Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Treatise on Gardening 1764


A Treatise on Gardening Written by a native of this State (Virginia)
Author was John Randolph (1727-1784)
Written in Williamsburg, Virginia about 1765
Published by T. Nicolson, Richmond, Virginia. 1793
The only known copy of this booklet is found in the Special Collections of the Wyndham Robertson Library at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia.

Lavender

Lavender, Lavendula a lavendo, because good in washings and bathing, as it scents the water and beautifies the flesh, should be propagated from the cuttings or slips, and. planted out in March in a poor gravelly soil. It has been found that this soil suits it best, will give it a more aromatic smell, and that it will resist the winters here better than in a rich soil.
.

Lavender has been in documented use for over 2,500 years. Lavender was used for mummification & perfume by the Egyptians, Phoenicians, & peoples of Arabia.

Romans used lavender oils for bathing, cooking, & scenting the air, & they most likely gave it the Latin root from which we derive the modern name (either lavare--to wash, or livendula--livid or bluish). The flower's soothing "tonic" qualities, the insect-repellent effects of the strong scent, & the use of the dried plant in smoking mixtures also added to the value of the herb in ancient times.

Lavender is mentioned often in the Bible, not by the name lavender but rather by the name used at that time--spikenard (from the Greek name for lavender, naardus, after the Syrian city Naarda). In the gospel of Luke the writer reports: "Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, & anointed the feet of Jesus, & wiped his feet with her hair; & the house was filled with the odor of the ointment."

Perhaps first domesticated by the Arabians, lavender spread across Europe from Greece. Around 600 BC, lavender may have come from the Greek Hyeres Islands into France & is now common in France, Spain, Italy & England. The 'English' lavender varieties were not locally developed in England but rather introduced in the 1600s, right around the time the first lavender plants were making their way to the Americas.

In Medieval & Renaissance Europe, the washing women were known as "lavenders" & they used lavender to scent drawers & dried the laundry on lavender bushes. Also during this time, lavender was grown in so-called "infirmarian's gardens" in monasteries, along with many other medicinal herbs. According to the German nun Hildegard of Bingen, who lived from 1098-1179, lavender "water,"--a decoction of vodka, gin, or brandy mixed with lavender--is great for migraine headaches.

During the Great Plague in London in the 17th century, it was suggested that a bunch of lavender fastened to each wrist would protect the wearer against the deadly disease. Grave-robbers were said to wash in Four Thieves Vinegar, which contained lavender.  In 16th-century France, lavender was also used to resist infection. Glove-makers, who were licensed to perfume their wares with lavender, were said to have escaped cholera at that time.

Charles VI of France demanded lavender-filled pillows wherever he went. Queen Elizabeth I of England required lavender conserve at the royal table. She also wanted fresh lavender flowers available every day of the year, a daunting task for a gardener if you consider the climate of England. Louis XIV also loved lavender & bathed in water scented with it.

In the United States & Canada, the Shakers were the first to grow lavender commercially. They most likely had little use for lavender's amorous qualities (they were celibate), they developed herb farms upon their arrival from England. They produced their own herbs & medicines & sold them to the "outside world."

An apocryphal book of the Bible, reports that Judith anointed herself with perfumes including lavender before seducing Holofernes, the enemy commander. This allowed her to murder him & thus save the City of Jerusalem. The overwhelming power of this seductive scent was also used by Cleopatra to seduce Julius Cesaer & Mark Antony. The Queen of Sheba offered spikenard with frankincense & myrrh to King Solomon,

By Tudor times, lavender brew was being sipped by maidens on St. Lukes day to divine the identity of their true loves. They'd chant, "St. Luke, St. Luke, be kind to me. In my dreams, let me my true love see."  A famous nursery rhyme called "Lavender Blue, Dilly Dilly" was written in 1680 & talks of "Whilst you & I, diddle, diddle…keep the bed warm." mummification & perfume by the Egyptians, Phoenicians, & peoples of Arabia.

Romans used lavender oils for bathing, cooking, & scenting the air, & they most likely gave it the Latin root from which we derive the modern name (either lavare--to wash, or livendula--livid or bluish). The flower's soothing "tonic" qualities, the insect-repellent effects of the strong scent, & the use of the dried plant in smoking mixtures also added to the value of the herb in ancient times.

Lavender is mentioned often in the Bible, not by the name lavender but rather by the name used at that time--spikenard (from the Greek name for lavender, naardus, after the Syrian city Naarda). In the gospel of Luke the writer reports: "Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, & anointed the feet of Jesus, & wiped his feet with her hair; & the house was filled with the odor of the ointment."

Perhaps first domesticated by the Arabians, lavender spread across Europe from Greece. Around 600 BC, lavender may have come from the Greek Hyeres Islands into France & is now common in France, Spain, Italy & England. The 'English' lavender varieties were not locally developed in England but rather introduced in the 1600s, right around the time the first lavender plants were making their way to the Americas.

In Medieval & Renaissance Europe, the washing women were known as "lavenders" & they used lavender to scent drawers & dried the laundry on lavender bushes. Also during this time, lavender was grown in so-called "infirmarian's gardens" in monasteries, along with many other medicinal herbs. According to the German nun Hildegard of Bingen, who lived from 1098-1179, lavender "water,"--a decoction of vodka, gin, or brandy mixed with lavender--is great for migraine headaches.

During the Great Plague in London in the 17th century, it was suggested that a bunch of lavender fastened to each wrist would protect the wearer against the deadly disease. Grave-robbers were said to wash in Four Thieves Vinegar, which contained lavender. In 16th-century France, lavender was also used to resist infection. Glove-makers, who were licensed to perfume their wares with lavender, were said to have escaped cholera at that time.

Charles VI of France demanded lavender-filled pillows wherever he went. Queen Elizabeth I of England required lavender conserve at the royal table. She also wanted fresh lavender flowers available every day of the year, a daunting task for a gardener if you consider the climate of England. Louis XIV also loved lavender & bathed in water scented with it.

In the United States & Canada, the Shakers were the first to grow lavender commercially. They most likely had little use for lavender's amorous qualities (they were celibate), they developed herb farms upon their arrival from England. They produced their own herbs & medicines & sold them to the "outside world."

An apocryphal book of the Bible, reports that Judith anointed herself with perfumes including lavender before seducing Holofernes, the enemy commander. This allowed her to murder him & thus save the City of Jerusalem. The seductive scent was also used by Cleopatra to seduce Julius Cesaer & Mark Antony.

By Tudor times, lavender brew was being sipped by maidens on St. Lukes day to divine the identity of their true loves. They'd chant, "St. Luke, St. Luke, be kind to me. In my dreams, let me my true love see." A famous nursery rhyme called "Lavender Blue, Dilly Dilly" was written in 1680 & talks of "Whilst you & I, diddle, diddle…keep the bed warm."

Sunday, May 12, 2013

Growing & harvesting flowers, nuts, herbs, fruits & vegetables in the 1400s illuminated manuscripts


Perhaps it would be interesting to look at gardening in Europe, before the first long-term settlers came to America from there in the early 1600s.  The Tacuinum Sanitatis is a lavishly illustrated medieval handbook on health largely focusing on the growing & preparation of food, based on the Taqwim al‑sihha تقويم الصحة ("Maintenance of Health"), an 11th-century Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan of Baghdad.  These manuscripts were first commissioned by northern Italian nobility during the last decades of the 14th century. Four handsomely illustrated complete late 14th-century manuscripts of the Taccuinum, all produced in Lombardy, survive, in Vienna, Paris, Liège & Rome, as well as scattered illustrations from others. The illuminated manuscripts here come from different copies of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, from between 1370-1400.  You will notice the varying illustrators's styles in these examples.


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Almonds


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Anda


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Apples


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Asparagus


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Asparagus  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Bananas  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Barley


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Bay


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Beans


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Beans


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Beehives


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Beehives


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Beets


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Black Olives


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Cabbage


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Cabbage Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Cabbage


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Cabbage


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Calabash or bottle gourds


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Calabash or bottle gourds


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Calabash or bottle gourds


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Calabash or bottle gourds


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Calabash or bottle gourds


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Carrots


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Carrots


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Celery


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Celery


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Celery


 Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Sweet Cherries  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Chestnuts  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Chestnuts


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Chestnuts


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Chickpeas


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Citron Watermellons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Citron Watermellons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Citron Watermellons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Citron Watermellons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Citron Watermellons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Citrus


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Crocus


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Cucumbers Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Cucumbers


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Cucumbers


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Currants


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Date Tree  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Dill


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Dill


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Dragon Wart


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Eggplant


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Eggplant


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Eggplant


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Eggplant


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Eggplant


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Elecampane  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Fennel


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Fennel


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Sweet Flag  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Garlic  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Garlic


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Grapes being pounded in a mortar


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Grapes


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Grapes


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Harvesting fruits


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Hops


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Indus or Palestinian Melons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Leeks


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Leeks  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Lettuce


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Lettuce


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Lettuce


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Mandrake


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Mandrake


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Mandrake Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Mandrake


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Mandrake


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Marjoram


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Melons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Melons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Melons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Melons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Melons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Millet


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Mustard (White Mustard)


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Olive Oil


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Onions


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Onions


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Orache


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Oranges


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Panicum


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Parsley


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Pears


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Pine Cones


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Plums


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Pomegranates


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Pomegranates


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Prickly Lettuce


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Purslain


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Quince


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Rose Garden


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Roses for rosary


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Roses for rosary


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Roses


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Rue


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Rye


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Saffron  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Sage


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Sour Cherries


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Spelta


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Spinach


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Spinach


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Spinach


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Spinach


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Truffles  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Turnips


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Watermelons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Watermellons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Watermellons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Watermellons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Watermellons


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Wheat


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Wheat


I cannot identify the fruit in some of these illustrations & those at the bootom signify a growing season.  I wish I could be more helpful, but I share them with you hoping you might unravel the mysteries.


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400

Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400

Growing Seasons...


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Spring


 Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Summer


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Summer  Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


Tacuinum Sanitatis, ca. 1400 Autumn