Friday, August 30, 2013

19th Century Seed Catalog Competition



Everitt Company Catalog of 1892 Cartoon on the competition among seed merchants fishing for customers

Monday, August 26, 2013

English Garden Books

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Practical farming & gardening books far outnumbered books devoted exclusively to pleasure gardening on the bookshelves of colonial & early American gardeners. Agriculture was the main source of income for most colonial families. Once a landowner was producing enough off of his land to support his family, he might have the time & the extra funds to begin to transform some of his land, closest to his house, into a pleasure garden. It was his art.


Often the necessary agricultural instruction books contained information on gardening as well. We can learn which farming books were in use in the colonies from death inventories. Marylanders were fairly faithful inventory recorders. Although scattered estate inventory records dating back to 1674, do exist in the state, these documents are nearly complete after a 1715 law required all executors to make an estate inventory within 3 months of death.

Unfortunately inventory takers were not often very specific when recording book titles & seldom listed authors, so the interpretation of precisely what book was recorded in early property lists is difficult. The 1718 inventory of William Bladen, who was Secretary of Maryland in 1701, & Attorney General in 1707, listed John Evelyn's (1620-1706) The Complete Gardener published in London in 1693. It was a translation of a French work by Jean de la Quintinie (1629-1688). The "Art of Gardening" which appears in several early inventories was probably the work of the English author, Leonard Meager. His book, actually titled The New Art of Gardening, was published in London in 1697.

The extant letters of 18th century Marylanders Henry Callister & Charles Carroll the Barrister (of Mount Clare) often mention farming books. Henry Callister (1716-1765) spent several years in a Liverpool counting house, before his employers sent him to manage their store at Oxford on Maryland's Eastern Shore. Evidence of the frequent exchange of books among gardening readers on the Eastern Shore is found scattered throughout his letterbooks.

After his arrival in Maryland, Callister became acquainted with a prosperous planter William Carmichael, who lived near Chestertown. Callister borrowed Carmichael's copy of Jethro Tull's (1647-1741) Horse-Hoeing Husbandry: Or, an Essay on the Principals of Tillage and Vegetation published in 1733. The book was a classic, and Tull came to be called the "father of modern husbandry." Callister also owned a copy of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort's (1656-1708) History of Plants Growing about Paris, With Their Use in Physick, and a mechanical account of the operation of medicines. Translated into English, with many additions, & accommodated to the plants growing in Great Britain by John Martyn, it was published by C. Riverington in London in 1732.

Callister offered to sell this particular book to a fellow gardener in 1765, "I have a small posthumous work of Tournefort...it gives the description & use of plants in medicine, with their chymical analysis; it is an 2v. 12 degree worth 12/6 Currency. I shall send it if you like. I would now, as it might be return'd if not wanted, but there are a few things in it which I would read first."

The book's author Joseph Pitton de Tournefort became professor of Botany at the Jardin du Roi botanic garden in Paris in 1683, and later made various expeditions in Europe & the Near East in search of plants. In 1688, he took his degree of Doctor of Medicine at the University of Orange. The book's English translator, John Martyn (1699-1768) was Professor of Botany at Cambridge from 1732 until 1762.

By 1766, Charles Carroll the Barrister was ordering his seeds for Mount Clare from his British factors by noting specific seed types directly from the English gardening books on his shelves. That year he copied a long list of seeds "from Hale's Complete Body of Husbandry," first published in London in 1755/56, asking his English agents to send as many of them as possible to Maryland.

Another book referred to by the Barrister was Thomas Hale's Eden: or a compleat body of gardening...(or ratehr by Sir. J. Hill) published in London in 1756-57. John Hill (1716-1775) was the son of a Lincolnshire clergyman brought up to be an apothecary. During his apprenticeship he attended the lectures on botany of the Chelsea botanic garden. In 1750, he was granted a degree as a Doctor of Medicine from the University of St. Andrews. In 1760, he assisted in laying out a botanic garden at Kew & was a gardener at Kensington Palace. Carroll's copy of Hale's Complete Husbandry still exists in the library at Mount Clare.

The Barrister was also interested in the agricultural reforms sweeping England. He not only knew which specific books he wanted his English agents to buy but was able to direct them to the specific publishing houses in London that stocked the desired works. He ordered, "A new and Complete System of Practical Husbandry by John Mills Esquire, Editor of Duhamels Husbandry printed by John Johnson at the monument... Essays on Husbandry Essay the first On The Ancient and Present State of Agriculture and the Second On Lucern Printed for William Frederick at Bath 1764. Sold by Hunter at Newgate Street or Johnston in Ludgate Street."

The Barrister's distant cousin who signed the Declaration of Independence, Charles Carroll of Carrollton (1737-1832), also ordered farming & gardening books from England. By the mid 1760s, his family's library in Annapolis contained Miller's Dictionary & Richard Bradley's (1686-1732) New Improvement of Planting and Gardening published in London in 1726. Bradley's work appeared in several Maryland inventories in the 1730's. Bradley studied gardening in France and Holland; and in 1724, he was appointed the first professor of Botany at Cambridge.

Another popular English publication in Carroll's library by the mid-1760s was Batty Langley's (1696-1751) New Principles of Gardening... with Experimental Directions for Raising several kinds of Fruit Trees, Forest Trees, Evergreens and Flowering Shrubs. Later the Carrolls added to their library Richard Weston's (1733-1806) Gardener's and Planter's Calendar published in Dublin in 1782. Weston was a thread hosier in Leicester who had travelled in France & Holland as Secretary of the Leicester Agricultural Society.

The letters of Henry Callister & the several Maryland Carrolls show that many of the books owned by Marylanders were imported directly from London in exchange for the annual tobacco shipment or goods such as iron ore. Before the Revolution wealthy planters & merchants depended on their own private libraries often exchanging books with one another. When literate farmers & planters died, their books were passed to others with deliberate care. At the death of Virginian gentleman William Ludlow in the mid 1760s, his books were offered for sale directly to Charles Carroll of Carrollton who chose two gardening books from the Virginian's collection including Batty Langley's treatise.

Direct trade with London booksellers gradually decreased, as tobacco became less important in the economic life of Maryland and as trade was curtailed during the Revolution. As a result, bookstores & circulating libraries began to appear in Annapolis & Baltimore. Their appearance coincided with the rise of a literate merchant class. Before the Revolution, there were a few booksellers in colonial Maryland. William Aikman was an early bookseller in Annapolis who imported quantities of books from London for sale directly to colonial readers. In the Maryland Gazette of June 23, 1774, he advertised for sale "Adam Dickson, A Treatise on Agriculture...2 vol. Edinburgh, 1770."

Several Maryland booksellers quickly realized that not all readers in the new nation could afford to buy books for their personal use & started offering less costly circulating library services to expand their businesses. By 1783, Annapolis had its own circulating library offering a few farming & gardening books to subscribers. These included Richard Weston's Gardener's and Planter's Calendar (published only a year earlier in Ireland) and Thomas Mawe's Everyman His Own Gardener published in London by W. Griffin in 1767. Mawe was the gardener to the Duke of Leeds who only lent his name to give an air of authenticity to the publication actually written by John Abercrombie (1726-1806).

The largest collection of 18th century gardening & agricultural books owned in Maryland is referred to in earliest catalogue of the Library Company of Baltimore. These books formed the nucleus of information for Baltimore farmers for many years. In the December 1780 Maryland Journal, William Prichard advertised that he was opening a bookstore & establishing a circulating library of 1000 volumes in Baltimore. By 1784, a 2nd literary entrepreneur William Murphy opened a circulating library in the city, but the most information remains about the Library Company of Baltimore, which had 60 subscribers & 1300 volumes when it was chartered in 1796. By 1809 when the first catalogue was prepared, the library had over 400 members & 7000 volumes. By the next year there were about 35,000 people living in Baltimore, many visiting the Library Company to borrow an English or classical book on gardening.
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Saturday, August 24, 2013

1794 On the healthy aspects of vegetables & on irrigation



The Pennsylvania Gazette,  July 30, 1794, from The FARMER'S and IMPROVER'S FRIEND.
THE PROFIT AND COMFORT OF GARDENS

On eating vegetables...

Gardens do not appear to have sufficiently attracted the attention of either the wealthy or the poor farmer. Plenty and variety of good vegetables have the most favourable effect upon the health of a family, and particularly of the children and women. The doctor's bill is greatly encreased, by inattention to the garden , and often valuable lives are lost by feeding in times of sickness in the hot weather, upon meat, cheese and butter, because there are no early potatoes, carrots, early turnips, cabbages, beans, peas, beets, &c. In every garden raspberries, currants, peaches and pears should be planted. They grow as freely as weeds in this climate, especially the two first, and if used only when ripe, they are preventatives of some disorders, and more certain cures for others, than any medicine.

On irrigation...

The French and Italians place their gardens so as to command a pond of water near them. On the bank of the pond they place an upright post, with a pole across the top, twining on a piece of wood or iron. At one end of the pole is fixed a little pail or bucket, so as to be easily dipped into the pond filled often; the other end of the pole serves as a long handle, by means of which the bucket or pail is dipped into the pond and filled, then raised (by pressing down the handle end of the pole) till the bucket is brought over a cask, into which it is emptied. Water is sometimes raised in like manner by a wheel turned by hand. It is then carried, by little rough troughs, all over the garden , so as to produce a great abundance of vegetables, and especially of those kinds, which usually fail, for want of rain, in dry season.

This is another pleasing instance of the good effects of the Irrigation or watering, so earnestly recommended in the first number of these papers. It is proper to recommend attention to the position of such ponds in relation to dwelling-houses. They should, if near or large, be on one of those sides from which the summer winds do not blow, and they should be kept running, and indeed should be occasionally emptied in the summer months. Here to, it may well to recommend to the farmer and miller, of every denomination, not to place his buildings nearer than is necessary to any mill-pond, common pond, wet ditch or drain, creek, or other stream; and so to place his dwelling, that any such water may lie on the northerly and easterly side of his house, and by no means to have even a running stream, much less a standing water or pond, or a marsh, on the side from which the summer winds can bring the dampness and pernicious vapours, which the sun always raises from such places. Farmers, whose houses, unfortunately are already built on the northerly or easterly side of bogs or marshes, would do well to drain such places, and if they are covered with wood, it will be proper to make the principal ditches or drains one reason before the wood shall be cut off, that, when the sun is let in upon the ground, it may be found, as far as possible, in a dry condition, incapable of producing vapour.

1764 Marjoram in Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Garden


A Treatise on Gardening Written by a native of this State (Virginia)
Author was John Randolph (1727-1784)
Written in Williamsburg, Virginia about 1765
Published by T. Nicolson, Richmond, Virginia. 1793
The only known copy of this booklet is found in the Special Collections of the Wyndham Robertson Library at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia.

Marjoram

Marjoram, winter, pot and wild....Origanum. This may be propagated either from the seed, cuttings, or parting their roots in the spring; and if kept clear from the weeds will stand a number of years.
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Thursday, August 22, 2013

George Washington's Books on Landscape, Garden, & Farm



George Washington (22 February 1732 - 14 December 1799), Virginia surveyor, landowner, military leader and statesman. Commander of the Continental Army, president of the Constitutional Convention, and first president of the United States.

1790s  Christian Gullager 1759-1826 George Washington.

George Washington's library at the time of his death ran to some nine hundred volumes, which passed into the possession of his nephew Judge Bushrod Washington along with Washington's papers and Mount Vernon. When Bushrod Washington died in 1826, he willed parts of the library to his nephews George C. and John A. Washington and to his grand-nephew Bushrod Washington Herbert.

Around 1847, a large portion of the books which remained at Mount Vernon were sold to bookseller Henry Stevens, who announced his intention to send them to the British Museum. A group from Boston and Cambridge, MA responded by raising $4,250 and purchased the books for the Boston Athenaeum (along with items to accompany the collection). This collection comprises the major portion of George Washington's library as we know it today.

Other Washington books were sold at auctions in 1876 and in the early 1890s. Information on the books sold in those sales has been included where possible.


Books on Landscape, Garden, & Farm

Title: The hot-house gardener on the general culture of the pine-apple, and methods of forcing early grapes, peaches, nectarines, and other choice fruits, in hot-houses, vineries, fruit-houses, hot-walls, &c., with directions for raising melons and early strawberries
Authors: John Abercrombie
Info: London : Printed for J. Stockdale, 1789.

Title: Hints on vegetation : and questions regarding the nature and principles thereof addressed to farmers, nurserymen and gardeners
Authors: Great Britain (Board of Agriculture)
Other authors: Sir John Sinclair (Author)
Info: London : Printed by B. McMillan ..., 1796.

Title: A treatise upon planting, gardening, and the management of the hot-house
Authors: John Kennedy
Info: London, S. Hooper, 1777. 2d ed.

Title: The gardeners kalendar : directing what works are necessary to be performed every month in the kitchen, fruit, and pleasure-gardens, as also in the conservatory and nursery ...
Authors: Philip Miller
Info: London : Printed for the author, and sold by John Rivington ... [and 15 others], 1762.

Title: Planting and rural ornament
Authors: William Marshall
Info: London, Printed for G. Nicol ... G.G. and J. Robinson ... and J. Debrett ..., 1796.

Title: Le jardinier solitaire the solitary or Carthusian gard'ner, being dialogues between a gentleman and a gard'ner. Containing the method to make and cultivate all sorts of gardens; ... Written in French by Francis Gentil, ... Also The compleat florist: ... By the Sieur Louis Liger d'Auxerre. In three parts. Newly done into English
Authors: François Gentil
Info: London : printed for Benj. Tooke, 1706.

Title: New principles of gardening: or, The laying out and planting parterres, groves, wildernesses, labyrinths, avenues, parks, &c. after a more grand and rural manner, than has been done before; with experimental directions for raising the several kinds of fruit-trees, forest-trees ... To which is added, the various names, descriptions, temperatures, medicinal virtues, uses and cultivations of several roots, pulse, herbs, &c. of the kitchen and physick gardens
Authors: Batty Langley
Info: London, A. Bettesworth and J. Batley [etc.] 1728.

Title: The universal gardener and botanist or, a general dictionary of gardening and botany. Exhibiting in botanical arrangement, according to the Linnæan system, every tree, shrub, and herbaceous plant, ... By Thomas Mawe, ... And John Abercrombie,
Authors: John Abercrombie
Other authors: Thomas Mawe (Author)
Info: London : printed for G. Robinson; and T. Cadell, 1778.

Title: The abridgement of the Gardeners dictionary: containing the best and newest methods of cutlivating and improving the kitchen, fruit, flower garden, and nursery; as also for performing the practical parts of husbandry: together with the management of vineyards, and the methods of making wine in England. In which likewise are included, directions for propagating and improving, from real practice and experience, pasture lands and all sorts of timber trees
Authors: Philip Miller
Info: London, Printed for the author, 1763. 5th ed.

Title: Catalogue of plants, exotic and indigenous, in the Botanical Garden, Jamaica
Authors: Thomas Dancer
Info: St. Jago de la Vega : Printed by Alexander Aikman, printer to the Honourable House of Assembly, [1792].

Title: An heroic epistle to Sir William Chambers knight, comptroller general of His Majesty's works, and author of a late dissertation on oriental gardening. Enriched with explanatory notes, chiefly extraced from that elaborate performance
Authors: William Mason
Info: London : printed for J. Almon, 1776.

Title: Descriptions of some of the utensils in husbandry rolling carriages, cart rollers, and divided rollers for land or gardens, mills, weighing engines &c. &c.
Authors: James Sharp
Info: [London? : s.n., 1777?]

Title: The Botanical magazine; or Flower-garden displayed: in which the most ornamental foreign plants, cultivated in the open ground, the green-house, and the store, are accurately represented in their natural colours
Authors: 
Info: London: printed by S. Couchman, for W. Curtis, 1793-1800.

Title: The hot-house gardener on the general culture of the pine-apple, and methods of forcing early grapes, peaches, nectarines, and other choice fruits, in hot-houses, vineries, fruit-houses, hot-walls, &c., with directions for raising melons and early strawberries
Authors: John Abercrombie
Info: London : Printed for J. Stockdale, 1789.

Title: Essays relating to agriculture and rural affairs
Authors: James Anderson
Info: Edinburgh : Printed for John Bell and for G. Robinson, 1784-1796.

Title: A practical treatise on draining bogs and swampy grounds : illustrated by figures : with cursory remarks upon the originality of Mr. Elkington's mode of draining : to which are added directions for making a new kind of strong, cheap and durable fence, for rich lands, for erecting at little expense, mill-dams, or weirs upon rivers ... As also, disquisitions concerning the different breeds of sheep, and other domestic animals : being the principal additions that have been made to the fourth edition ...
Authors: James Anderson
Info: London : Printed for G.G. and J. Robinson, 1797.

Title: A practical treatise on peat moss, considered as in its natural state fitted for affording fuel, or as susceptible of being converted into mold capable of yielding abundant crops of useful produce; with full directions for converting it from the state of peat into that of mold, and afterwards cultivating it as a soil
Authors: James Anderson
Info: Edinburgh, Printed for Robinson and Sons, 1794.

Title: Prospectus of an intended new periodical work, to be called the Bee, or Universal literary intelligencer to be published weekly ...
Authors: James Anderson
Info: Edinburgh : Printed by Mundell and Son ..., 1790.

Title: Recreations in agriculture, natural-history, arts, and miscellaneous literature
Authors: James Anderson
Info: [S.l. : s.n.], 1799-1800.

Title: Charles Baker's Treatise for the preventing of the smut in wheat
Authors: Charles Baker
Info: Bristol : Printed, by John Rose, for the author ..., 1797.

Title: A summary view of the courses of crops, in the husbandry of England & Maryland : with a comparison of their products; and a system of improved courses, proposed for farms in America
Authors: John Beale Bordley
Info: Philadelphia : Printed by Charles Cist, 1784.

Title: Purport of a letter on sheep : Written in Maryland, March the 30th, 1789
Authors: John Beale Bordley
Info: [Philadelphia : Daniel Humphreys, 1789].

Title: Sketches on rotations of crops
Authors: John Beale Bordley
Info: Philadelphia : Printed by C. Cist, 1792.

Title: Sketches on rotations of crops, and other rural matters : To which are annexed Intimations on manufactures; or the fruits of agriculture; and on new sources of trade interfering with products of the United States of America in foreign markets
Authors: John Beale Bordley
Info: Philadelphia: Printed by Charles Cist, 1797.

Title: Queries selected from a paper of the Board of Agriculture in London : on the nature and principles of vegetation: with answers and observations
Authors: John Beale Bordley
Info: [Philadelphia : Charles Cist, 1797].

Title: A treatise on watering meadows
Authors: George Boswell
Info: London, J. Debrett, 1792.

Title: Treatise on agriculture and practical husbandry. Designed for the information of landowners and farmers. With a brief account of the advantages arising from the new method of culture practised in Europe
Authors: Metcalf Bowler
Info: Providence, Printed by Bennett Wheeler, 1786.

Title: The orchardist, or, A system of close pruning and medication for establishing the science of orcharding : as patronized by the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce
Authors: Thomas Skip Dyot Bucknall
Other authors: Manufactures Society for the Encouragement of Arts, and Commerce (Great Britain)
Info: London : Printed for G. Nichol ..., 1797.

Title: A treatise, shewing the intimate connection that subsists between agriculture and chemistry : addressed to the cultivators of the soil, to the proprietors of fens and mosses, in Great Britain and Ireland, and to the proprietors of West India estates
Authors: Earl Archibald Cochrane of Dundonald
Info: London : Printed by the author, and sold by R. Edwards, 1795.

Title: An account of the culture and use of the mangel wurzel, or root of scarcity
Authors: Abbé de Commerell
Other authors: John Coakley Lettsom (Translator)
Info: London : Printed for Charles Dilly, in the Poultrey; and J. Phillips, George-Yard, Lombard-Street, 1787.

Title: Mémoire sur la culture, l'usage et les avantages du chou-à-faucher
Authors: Abbé de Commerell
Info: A Paris : chez Petit, [1789]

Title: Lettres d'un cultivateur américain addressées à W.m S...on ecq.r depuis l'année 1770, jusqu'en 1786
Authors: J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur
Info: Paris, Chez Cuchet Libraire, Rue et Hôtel Serpente, 1787.

Title: The case of labourers in husbandry stated and considered, in three parts. With an appendix containing a collection of accounts, shewing the earnings and expenses of labouring families in different parts of the Kingdom
Authors: David Davies
Info: Bath, Printed by R. Cruttwell for G. G. and J. Robinson, London, 1795.

Title: The farmer's compleat guide, through all the articles of his profession; the laying out, proportioning, and cropping his ground; and the rules for purchasing, managing, and preserving his stock
Authors: John Ball
Info: London, G. Kearsly, 1760.

Title: Compleat body of husbandry. : Containing rules for performing, in the most profitable manner, the whole business of the farmer and country gentleman, in cultivating, planting and stocking of land; in judging of the several kinds of seeds, and, of manures; and in the management ... To which is annexed, the whole management of the orchard, the brewhouse, and the dairy.
Authors: Thomas Hale
Info: London: : Printed for Tho. Osborne, in Gray's-Inn ; Tho. Trye, near Gray's-Inn Gate Holbourn ; and S. Crowder and Co. on London-Bridge., 1758-1759. 2d ed.

Title: The gentleman farmer : Being an attempt to improve agriculture, by subjecting it to the test of rational principles
Authors: Lord Henry Home Kames
Info: Dublin : Printed by James Williams, 1779.

Title: A treatise upon planting, gardening, and the management of the hot-house
Authors: John Kennedy
Info: London, S. Hooper, 1777. 2d ed.

Title: Observations in husbandry
Authors: Edward Lisle
Info: London : Printed by J. Hughs ... for C. Hitch ... [and 7 others], 1757.

Title: Fourteen agricultural experiments, to ascertain the best rotation of crops : addressed to the "Philadelphia Agricultural Society"
Authors: George Logan
Info: Philadelphia : Printed by Francis and Robert Bailey ..., 1797.

Title: A treatise on hemp : in two parts : containing I. its history ... II. the methods of cultivating, dressing, and manufacturing it ...
Authors: M. Marcandier
Info: London : Printed for T. Becket, and P.A. De Hondt, 1764.

Title: Arbustrum americanum: the American grove, or, An alphabetical catalogue of forest trees and shrubs, natives of the American United States, arranged according to the Linnaean system. Containing, the particular distinguishing characters of each genus, with plain, simple and familiar descriptions of the manner of growth, appearance, &c. of their several species and varieties. Also, some hints of their uses in medicine, dyes, and domestic oeconomy
Authors: Humphry Marshall

Title: The gardeners kalendar : directing what works are necessary to be performed every month in the kitchen, fruit, and pleasure-gardens, as also in the conservatory and nursery ...
Authors: Philip Miller
Info: London : Printed for the author, and sold by John Rivington ... [and 15 others], 1762.

Title: A description of the soil, productions, commercial, agricultural and local advantages of the Georgia western territory: together with a summary and impartial view of the claims of Georgia and of the United States to this territory, and of the principal arguments aduced by the purchasers against these claims. Collected and stated from various authentic documents
Authors: Jedidiah Morse
Info: Boston, Printed by Thomas & Andrews, 1797.

Title: Observations on the different breeds of sheep and the state of sheep farming in the southern districts of Scotland : being the result of a tour through these parts made under the direction of the Society For Improvement of British Wool
Authors: John Naismyth
Other authors: Society for the Improvement of British Wool (Contributor)
Info: Edinburgh : Printed by W. Smellie, printer to the Society, 1795.

Title: Notes on farming
Authors: Charles Thomson
Info: New-York : [s.n.], Printed in the year 1787.

Title: An account of the different kinds of sheep found in the Russian dominions, and among the Tartar hordes of Asia ... To which is added, five appendixes tending to illustrate the natural and economical history of sheep and other domestic animals
Authors: Peter Simon Pallas
Other authors: James Anderson (Contributor)
Info: Edinburgh, Pkinted [sic] and sold by T. Chapman, 1794.

Title: Agricultural enquiries on plaister of Paris : also, facts, observations and conjectures on that subtance [sic], when applied as manure : collected, chiefly from the practice of farmers in Pennsylvania, and published as much with a view to invite, as to give information
Authors: Richard Peters
Info: Philadelphia : Printed by Charles Cist ..., and John Markland ..., 1797.

Title: Observations on the different breeds of sheep : and the state of sheep farming in some of the principle counties of England drawn up from a report transmitted to Sir John Sinclair, chairman of the Society for the Improvement of British Wool
Authors: William Redhead
Other authors: Robert Laing (Contributor), William Marshall (Contributor)
Info: Edinburgh: Printed by W. Smellie and sold by W. Creech [et al.], 1792.

Title: The compleat horseman, or, Perfect farrier; in two parts. Part I. discovering the surest marks of beauty, goodness, faults, and imperfections of horses ... The art of shoeing ... riding and managing the great horse. Part II. Contains the signs and causes of their diseases, with the true method of curing them
Authors: Jacques de Solleysel
Info: London, for J. Walthoe [etc.] 1729. 4th ed.

Title: The practical farmer : being a new and compendious system of husbandry adapted to the different soils and climates of America, containing the mechanical, chemical, and philosophical elements of agriculture : with many other useful and interesting subjects
Authors: John Spurrier
Info: Wilmington [Del.] : Printed by Brynberg and Andrews, 1793.

Title: Every farmer his own cattle-doctor : containing a full and clear account of the symptoms and causes of the diseases of cattle, with the most approved prescriptions for their cure ...
Authors: John Swaine
Info: London : Printed for W. Richardson ..., 1786. 3d ed.

Title: An essay on draining and improving peat bogs; in which their nature and properties are fully considered
Authors: Nicholas Turner
Info: London : Printed for R. Baldwin, and J. Bew, 1784.

Title: A new system of husbandry. From many years experience, with tables shewing the expence and profit of each crop
Authors: Charles Varlo
Info: Philadelphia, The author, 1785.

Title: Wool encouraged without exportation, or, Practical observations on wool and the woollen manufacture : in two parts : part I. containing strictures on appendix no. IV. to a report made by a committee of the Highland Society, on the subject of Shetland wool : part II. containing a brief history of wool, and the nature of the woollen manufacture as connected with it ...
Authors: Henry Wansey
Info: London : Printed for T. Cadell, 1791.

Title: A New system of agriculture; or, A plain, easy, and demonstrative method of speedily growing rich: proving ... that every land-owner, in England, may advance his estate to a double value .... Together with several ... instructions, how to feed oxen, cows and sheep
Authors: Edward Weston
Info: London, printed for A. Millar, 1755. 2d ed.

Title: A treatise on the propagation of sheep : the manufacture of wool, and the cultivation and manufacture of flax, with directions for making several utensils for the business
Authors: John Wily
Info: Williamsburg : Printed by J. Royle, 1765.

Title: Annals of agriculture and other useful arts
Authors: Arthur Young
Info: London : Arthur Young, 1784-1798.

Title: Rural economy : or Essays on the practical parts of husbandry : designed to explain several of the most important methods of conducting farms of various kinds, including many useful hints to gentlemen farmers, relative to the economical management of their business. To which is added The rural Socrates, being memoirs of a country philosopher
Authors: Arthur Young
Other authors: Hans Kasper Hirzel (Contributor)
Info: Burlington : Printed by Isaac Neale, 1792. 3d ed.

Title: The country magazine. Calculated for the gentleman; the farmer, and his wife: containing every thing necessary for the advantage and pleasure of a country life. ...
Authors: 
Info: London [England : printed for T. Waller, opposite Fetter-Lane, Fleet Street, and to be had of all booksellers and news carriers; and country shop-keepers, if orders are given for the same, MDCCLXIII. [1763]

Title: Essays and notes on husbandry and rural affairs
Authors: John Beale Bordley
Info: Philadelphia : Printed by Budd and Bartram for T. Dobson, 1799.

Title: The complete farmer or, a general dictionary of husbandry, in all its branches; containing the various methods of cultivating and improving every species of land, according to the precepts of both the old and new husbandry. ... Together with a great variety of new discoveries and improvements. ... Illustrated with a great variety of folio copper-plates, ... By a society of gentlemen
Authors: 
Info: London : printed for the authors; and sold by J. Cooke; and T. Hookham, 1767

Title: A practical treatise of husbandry wherein are contained, many useful and valuable experiments and observations in the new husbandry
Authors: Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau
Other authors: John Mills (Translator)
Info: London : Printed for C. Hitch [and 8 others], 1762. 2d ed.

Title: The practical husbandman being a collection of miscellaneous papers on husbandry, &c.
Authors: Robert Maxwell
Info: Edinburgh : Printed by C. Wright and Company, for the author, 1757.


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Tuesday, August 20, 2013

Early Garden Book - Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

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Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613

Basilius Besler (German botanist, 1561–1629) Hortus Eystettensis 1613
.