Friday, September 26, 2014

1764 Chives - Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Treatise on Gardening 1764


A Treatise on Gardening Written by a native of this State (Virginia)
Author was John Randolph (1727-1784)
Written in Williamsburg, Virginia about 1765
Published by T. Nicolson, Richmond, Virginia. 1793
The only known copy of this booklet is found in the Special Collections of the Wyndham Robertson Library at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia.

Chives

Chives never grow into bulbs, but in bunches, and Miller takes it to be Shallot. They do not grow above six inches high in the blade. They are to be propagated by parting the roots or planting the cloves. They do not affect the breath so much as the other sorts. The Welch Onion at some seasons of the year, viz: in the fall, dies away, but revives in January, and becomes very early in the spring fit for the table.




Wednesday, September 24, 2014

1764 Lettuce - Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Treatise on Gardening 1764


A Treatise on Gardening Written by a native of this State (Virginia)
Author was John Randolph (1727-1784)
Written in Williamsburg, Virginia about 1765
Published by T. Nicolson, Richmond, Virginia. 1793
The only known copy of this booklet is found in the Special Collections of the Wyndham Robertson Library at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia.

Lettuce

Lettuces, Lactuca,from lac, milk, they being of a milky substance, which is emitted when the stalk is broken. There is a common garden Lettuce which is sown for cutting young and mixing with other small salads, and is the Cabbage Lettuce degenerated, as all seed will do that is saved from .a lettuce that has not Cabbage close by. These may be sown at any season of the year. The Cabbage Lettuce should be sown every month to have a succession, and drawn, as all the sorts ought to be, to stand at different distances, and these should stand about ten inches asunder, and by replanting those that are drawn, they will head later than those which stand, by which means you may have a succession. This sort of Lettuce is the worst of all the kinds in my opinion. It is the most watery and flashy, does not grow to the size that many of the other sorts will do, and very soon runs to seed. When I Say the seed is to be sown every month, I mean only the growing months, the first of which February is esteemed, and August the last. In August you should sow your last crop, about the beginning of the month, and in October transplant them into a rich border, sheltered from the weather by a box with a lid, which should be opened every morning and closed in the evening, and in the month of February you will have fine loaf lettuces; a lettuce is a hardy plant, particularly the Dutch brown, and will stand most of our winters, if covered only with peas, asparagus haum, mats or straw. In order to have good seed, you should make choice of some of your best Cabbage, and largest plants, which will run up to seed, and should be secured by a stick, stuck into the ground; and different sorts should not stand together, for the farina will intermix and prejudice each other, and none but good plants should be together for seed; experience has shown that the bad will vitiate the good, and the seed from the plants that have stood the winter are best. The seed is good at two years old, and will grow at three, if carefully preserved.

The Siiesia, imperial white, and upright Cos Lettuce, should be sown in February or beginning of March, and should he drawn so as to stand, Miller says, eighteen inches at least distance from each other, but thinks two feet much better.

The Egyptian green Cos, and the Versailles upright Cos and Silesia, are most esteemed in England as the sweetest and finest, though the imperial wants not its advocates. I, for my own part, give it the preference for three reasons, the first is, that it washes by far the easiest of any; second, that it will remain longer before it goes to seed than any other, except the Dutch brown; and lastly, that it is the crispest and most delicious of them all.

The Dutch Brown, and green Capuchin are very hardy, will stand the winters best, and remain in the heat of summer three weeks longer than any other before they go to seed, which renders them valuable, though they are not so handsome or elegant a Lettuce as any of the former. They may be sown as the common garden Lettuce in the spring, and in August as before.

The Aibppo and Roman Lettuce cabbage the soonest of any, and may be propagated for that reason; the first is a very spotted Lettuce: Col. Ludwell gave me some of the seed, but it did not please me so well as the other more common sorts; all the seed on a stalk will not ripen at the same time, so you must cut your stalk when some of the first seed are ripe. Mice are very fond of the seed. Some Lettuces show a disposition to head without assistance^ these should not be touched, but where they throw their leaves back, they should be tied up, though that restrains them from growing to a great size. They will not flourish but in richl and, and if dunged, the dung should not be very low, because the root of a lettuce will not go down so low as the dung is commonly spitted into the ground. The time for gathering the seed is when the plants show their down. Transplanting, it is said, contributes towards cabbaging; but they will cabbage, from my experience, every bit as well without. By transplanting you retard the growth, and by that means may have a succession.




Monday, September 22, 2014

1764 Clary - Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Treatise on Gardening 1764


A Treatise on Gardening Written by a native of this State (Virginia)
Author was John Randolph (1727-1784)
Written in Williamsburg, Virginia about 1765
Published by T. Nicolson, Richmond, Virginia. 1793
The only known copy of this booklet is found in the Special Collections of the Wyndham Robertson Library at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia.

Clary

Clary, Sclarea...These are propagated either from the seed, in a light soil, or parting the roots and planting them out at Michaelmas, about eighteen inches asunder; these will last many years.



Saturday, September 20, 2014

1764 Chamomile - Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Treatise on Gardening 1764


A Treatise on Gardening Written by a native of this State (Virginia)
Author was John Randolph (1727-1784)
Written in Williamsburg, Virginia about 1765
Published by T. Nicolson, Richmond, Virginia. 1793
The only known copy of this booklet is found in the Special Collections of the Wyndham Robertson Library at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia.

Chamomile

Chamomile, Chamomelum, (from Melon, gr. an Apple, because it has the scent of one, J or Anthemis, as it is called by Dr. Linnans. There are different species, but the chamomelum odoratishmum repens, fore simplici, is the sort chiefly propagated. It is used medicinally, and in making green walks or edgings; the method of planting is, to separate the roots, as they grow very close, and prick each root into poor land, about ten inches asunder, in the month of March; they will quickly stretch themselves into contact with each other, and as the flowers ripen they should be gathered and dried. When thick, it is apt to rot in the winter, so that it ought now and then to be thinned.



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Thursday, September 18, 2014

1764 Onion - Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Treatise on Gardening 1764


A Treatise on Gardening Written by a native of this State (Virginia)
Author was John Randolph (1727-1784)
Written in Williamsburg, Virginia about 1765
Published by T. Nicolson, Richmond, Virginia. 1793
The only known copy of this booklet is found in the Special Collections of the Wyndham Robertson Library at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia.

Onion

Onion, Cepa. There are three sorts for winter use; the Strasburg...the red Spanish Onion...the white Spanish Onion... There are other sorts which suit the spring and summer season best. There are Cepa ascalonica,from Ascalon, a city in India, or the Scallion or Escallion. The Cives, or Copula, the young Onion. The Welch Onion, and lastly the Ciboule. The three first sorts should be sown in February, the first open weather, or beginning of March at farthest, and in about six weeks your Onions will be up, and ought to be weeded. The rows should be about twelve or eighteen inches asunder, if sowed in drills, which is the best method, arid the plants should be drawn to be about five or six inches apart. This may be no loss, because they will serve with young salad in the spring; about the middle or latter end of July your plants will be ripe, which may be discovered by the dropping down or shrinking of the blades; then they should be drawn up, and the extreme part of the blades should be cropped off, and the plants laid on the ground to dry. They should be turned at least every other day, otherwise they will strike fresh root, especially in moist weather. In about a fortnight they will be sufficiently dried; you are then to rub off all the earth and take care to remove all that are any ways decayed, and the sound ones laid as thin as possible in some room or garret, as close from the air as possible, and at least once a month look over them, to see if any of them are decayed, for if any are so, they will affect the. rest; or if too near one another, or in heaps, they will heat, and probably ruin the whole crop. The white Onion is the sweetest, though all the three sorts will degenerate into one another in the course of time. In March'you should dig a trench, and put some of your most flourishing plants about six inches deep, and as far asunder,v into it, which should be covered over with a rake, and in about a month's time the leaves will appear above ground, and when your plants begin to head, they should be supported by stakes and packthread or yarn, otherwise they will be very liable to be injured by the winds. These will produce you seed about August, which may be known by the seeds changing brown, and the bells where the seed is contained opening. The heads should be critically cut, otherwise the seed will be dropped, and when cut, the heads should be exposed to the sun, and sheltered in the night and wet weather, and when suificiently dry, they should be rubbed out, and after being exposed one day more to the sun, may be put into bags and preserved for the following year. The Scallion is a small Onion, and is sown early in the spring, and never forms any bulb, and is used green in the spring with young salads. The Ciboule and Welch Onion, are thought to be the same by Miller.



Tuesday, September 16, 2014

1764 Mint - Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Treatise on Gardening 1764


A Treatise on Gardening Written by a native of this State (Virginia)
Author was John Randolph (1727-1784)
Written in Williamsburg, Virginia about 1765
Published by T. Nicolson, Richmond, Virginia. 1793
The only known copy of this booklet is found in the Special Collections of the Wyndham Robertson Library at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia.

Mint

Mint, Mentha, from mens, the mind, because it strengthens'the mind. These should be planted in the spring, by parting the roots or cuttings, and planted six inches asunder; otherwise the roots mat into one another, and destroy themselves in three years.
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