Sunday, May 24, 2015

Garden History - Plant Lists - 1736 List of Virginia William Byrd II 1674-1744


Virginian William Byrd II's 1736 Virginia Plant List


Maria Sibylla Merian (German artist, 1647-1717)

Like his father, Colonel William Byrd, William Byrd II (1674-1744) was a wealthy Virginia planter on his inherited plantation Westover, on the James River in Charles City County, Virginia. He served as a member, & later president, of the Governor's Council, as did his father. His library was one of the finest of his time in the British American colonies. He recorded his observations on natural history as well as life in colonial Virginia. 


William Byrd's Natural History of Virginia: Or, The Newly Discovered Eden is available in a translation edited by Richard Croom Beatty & William J. Mulloy from a German edition printed in 1737 (Dietz Press, Richmond, 1940).

The following are the plants Byrd listed c.1736:


CROPS


Flax

Cotton
Silk grass
Turkish or Indian Corn
Maize
Wheat
Rye
Barley
Oats
Corn
Summer
Winter
Rice
White
Red
Buckwheat
Guinea corn
Broad beans
French beans (small beans)
Indian beans (dwarf beans)
Peas, European
Heartpeas (Ronceval)
Bonaveria (Calavance-'Nanticokes')

POT HERBS


Cabbage

White
Red
Turnips
Carrots
Beets
Cabbage
Savoy
Curled red
Cauliflower
Chives
Artichokes
Radish
Horseradish
Potatoes
Truffles
Parsnips
Shumack
chapacour
puccons
musquaspen
“Tockawaigh”
Garlic
White
Red
Spinach
Round
Prickly
Fennel
Sea fennel
Rhubarb
Cultivated
Wild
Sorrel
Cress
Mustard
Parsley
Asparagus
White
Red
Melons
Watermelons
Fragrant melons
Guinea
Golden
Orange
Green
Cucumbers
Pumpkins
Cashaws
Burmillions
Simnals
Horns
Squash

FIELD AND POT-HERBS


Marjoram

Rosemary
Camomiles
Melissa
Wormwood
Ox-tongue
Angelica
Borage
Burnet
Clary
Marigold
Columbine
Savory
Bachelor's buttons
Cat-thyme
Poplars
Yarrow
Dragonwort
Hyssop
Lavender
Brazil cabbage
Cardo bennet spoonwort
Tobacco
Dill
Coriander, anise
Plantain
Elemampane
Nettles
Wood mint
Asters
Poppy seed
Worm seed
Mother-wort
Beyment
Jamestown grass
Houseleek
Vervain
Hart's tongue
Nightshade
Yarrow
Mullen
Agrimony
Centaury
Scabiosa
John's wort
Maiden hair
Juniper
Soldanella
Dillany
Terbil
Mechoacan
Sarsaparilla

FLOWERS IN VIRGINIA


Carnations

Roses
Violets
Tricolor
Princess feather
Fritillary
Cardinal flowers
Sunflowers
Tulips
Moccasin flower
Tulip tree
Jasmine
Yellow
White
Locusts
Laurel tree
Wild apple tree

TREES, WHICH GROW IN THE WOODS


Chestnut oak

Red oak
Spanish oak
White oak
Black oak
Bastard oak
White iron-oak
Indian chicken-oak
Willow oak
Water oak
Green liveoak
Ash
Elms, two species
Tulip tree
Birches
Sassafras
Laurel trees
Dogwood
Wild apple tree
Sweet gun tree
White gum tree
Black gum tree
Scarletcolored snakewood
Bay tree
Red cedar
White cedar
Cypress tree
Hollow tree
Locust tree
Sorrel tree
Fir tree
Pitch pine
Almond tree
Hickory tree
White hickory
Red hickory
Brown hickory
Chincapin
Common maple tree
Willow
Egyptian fig tree
Glass wort tree
Prickly ash
Chestnut tree
Poison vine
Bamboo
Palmetto
Grape vines
Cluster grapes
Red cluster grapes
Fox grapes
winter
summer
Summer grapes
Winter grapes
Persimmon
Cherry tree
Hazel nuts
Mulberry, Common Red
Mulberry, red
Mulberry, white
Sugar maple
Spanish pepper tree
Papaw tree
Wild figs
Wild plums
Raspberry bushes
Blackberries
Huckle-berries
Winter currant tree
Bermuda curants
Bilberries
Cranberries
Strawberries
Myrtle berries
Eglantine berries
Jamestown plant
Fragrant tulip-bearing
laurel tree
Wild fragrant apple tree
Gall apple
Camellia tree
Red hawthorn
Black hawthorn
Safflower
Fragrant laurel tree
Indigo
Hops

TREES, WHICH ARE CULTIVATED, AND GROW IN THE ORCHARDS, WHICH ONE HAS BROUGHT THERE FROM ENGLAND AND OTHER PLACES IN EUROPE


Apples

Golden russet
Summer pearmain
Winter pearmain
Fall harvest apple
Winter queening
Lader-goller
Juntin' apple
Golden pippin
Carpendich
Red streaks
Jungferen
Long-stem apple
Red apple
Kabapffel
Green apple
French rennets

PEARS AND QUINCES


Pears

Sugar
Bergamont
Catherine
Warden
Summer bon chretien
Egg-shaped pear
Herren-Bieren
Grass-Bieren
Pomerantzen-Bieren
Feigen-Bieren
Winter Bon chretien
Citronen-Bieren
Roth-Bieren
Frauen Bieren
Gold-Bieren
Madeira pear
Pond pears
Musk pear
Quince
Indian
Spanish
Portuguese
Barbary
Brunswickian

ALL SORTS OF STONE FRUITS


Peaches

Plum peach
Nectarine peach
Apricot tree
Plums
Wild plums
Fig trees
Cherry trees
White
Red
Black
Mulberry trees
Currants
Raspberries
European
Indian
Cowberries
European
Indian
Red
White
Black
Strawberries
Nut trees
English
French
Italian
Spanish
Madeiran
Indian nut tree
Hazel nut
Grape vines
Almonds
Pomegranates
Coffee trees
Tea trees