Martha Washington (1731-1802) - From the Garden to the Table
While George Washington oversaw most aspects of managing Mount Vernon's pleasure gardens & grounds, Martha Washington oversaw the Kitchen Garden (The Lower Garden), allowing her to keep fruits and vegetables on the table year round.
“…impress it on the gardener to have every thing in his garden that will be nece]ssary in the House keeping way — as vegetable is the best part of our living in the country.” – Martha Washington, 1792
Inside the Kitchen at Mount Vernon
In the matter of eating & drinking George Washington was temperate. For breakfast he ordinarily had tea & Indian cakes with butter & perhaps honey, of which he was very fond. His supper was equally light, consisting of perhaps tea & toast, with wine, & he usually retired at nine o'clock. Dinner was the main meal of the day at Mount Vernon, & usually was served at two o'clock. One such meal is thus described by a guest: "He thanked us, desired us to be seated, & to excuse him a few moments.... The President came & desired us to walk in to dinner & directed us where to sit, (no grace was said).... The dinner was very good, a small roasted pigg, boiled leg of lamb, roasted fowls, beef, peas, lettice, cucumbers, artichokes, etc., puddings, tarts, etc. etc." The General ordinarily confined himself to a few courses & if offered anything very rich, he would protest, "That is too good for me." He often drank beer with the meal, with one or two glasses of wine & perhaps as many more afterward, often eating nuts, another delicacy with him, as he sipped the wine.
Rum represented an important trade commodity between British North America and the Caribbean. Exterior Of The Curing House and Stills, Antigua, by William Clark, c. 1823, Courtesy, The British Library. [1786.c.9].
During the colonial era, rum was the preferred alcoholic drink of American colonists. By one estimate, colonists consumed 3.7 gallons annually per head by the time of the American Revolution.1 Naturally, when Britain sought to closely regulate and impose taxes on molasses, used in rum production, a spirited protest ensued. George Washington’s political, military, and personal relationship with rum exemplified the centrality of the drink to colonial society and American independence.
English rum distillation originated in Barbados in the 1630s. Although England’s Caribbean sugar colonies continued to produce the highest quality and best tasting rum, the mainland colonies in North America eventually took advantage of the growing demand for the popular drink. By the late seventeenth century, New England began distilling rum.
American production of rum boomed, as the colonies traded excess grains for molasses with Caribbean territories. By the English Navigation Acts, the colonies were restricted to trading for molasses with fellow English colonies. However, American colonial merchants flouted the regulations by smuggling cheaper molasses from French colonies, particularly Saint Domingue (Haiti), in the West Indies. With the 1733 Molasses Act, Britain imposed legislation aimed at limiting colonial access to foreign molasses. Instead, large-scale smuggling of molasses became even more commonplace. While the Molasses Act should have raised 25,000 pounds each year, British officials collected only 259 pounds in 1735.
The Molasses Act anticipated controversial British policies toward the American colonies in the 1760s. In 1764, Britain passed the Sugar Act, legislation that lowered taxation on molasses from six pence per gallon to three, yet encouraged the British Navy to put an end to smuggling. Upon discovering any contraband, the navy was permitted to seize half of the findings. In 1774, Robert Adam, a Scottish merchant residing in Alexandria, Virginia, wrote to George Washington arguing that rum should be imported “from the West Indies here, and not the Round about way from Philadelphia here at Second hand.”2 The tight regulation of molasses, accompanied by a war on colonial merchants, conducted by the Royal Navy, ultimately contributed to the American Revolution.
Like other prominent colonists, Washington interacted with rum in many aspects of his life. For instance, in order to win election in the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1758, Washington attracted voters with charm, entertainment and rum. During his campaign, he supplied voters with 28 gallons of rum, 50 gallons of rum punch, and 82 gallons of wine, beer and cider.
Just as Washington used rum to gain political victory, he also used the drink to boost morale among his soldiers. In June 1779, Washington informed General Alexander McDougall: “I have written to the Commissary urging him if possible to have a pretty good stock of rum at the forts to supply more constantly the fatigue parties.”3 Washington shared the view of many people at the time that liquor helped to keep tired people awake. A supply of rum could mean the difference between an exhausted soldier and one ready to wage war.
Finally, Washington used rum to stabilize plantation life at Mount Vernon. In exchange for a day’s work, he gave his slaves an allowance of liquor. When Washington accused James Butler, an overseer at Mount Vernon, of allowing his slaves 36 pints of rum, Butler claimed that he had given a much smaller portion of “no more than a pint of rum & a pound of Meat to each man.”4 Even as Washington supplied rum to his enslaved workers, he also mandated limits to the practice.
After the American Revolution, rum production continued in the British West Indies, but America’s consumption of the drink significantly decreased. Instead, Americans turned toward whiskey production. Washington, too, reflected this trend, constructing his own distillery at Mount Vernon in 1797.
1. Ian Williams, Rum: A Social and Sociable History of the Real Spirit of 1776 (New York: Nation Books, 2005), 166.
2. “Robert Adam to George Washington, 13 January 1774,” The Papers of George Washington Digital Edition, ed. Theodore J. Crackel (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2008).
3. “George Washington to Major General Alexander McDougall, 28 June 1779,” The Papers of George Washington Digital Edition, ed. Theodore J. Crackel (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2008).
4. “George Washington to Major General Alexander McDougall, 28 June 1779,” The Papers of George Washington Digital Edition, ed. Theodore J. Crackel (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2008).
Pogue, Dennis J. Founding Spirits: George Washington and the Beginnings of the American Whiskey Industry. Harbour Books, 2011.
Salinger, Sharon V. Taverns and Drinking in Early America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
Thompson, Peter. Rum Punch and Revolution: Taverngoing and Public Life in Eighteenth Century Philadelphia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press: 1999.
Williams, Ian. Rum: A Social and Sociable History of the Real Spirit of 1776. New York: Nation Books, 2005.