Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Martha Washington (1731-1802) - From Garden to Table - Eliza Leslie’s Collared Pork with Garden Herbs

Martha Washington (1731-1802) - From the Garden to the Table 

While George Washington oversaw most aspects of managing Mount Vernon's  pleasure gardens & grounds, Martha Washington oversaw the Kitchen Garden (The Lower Garden), allowing her to keep fruits and vegetables on the table year round.

The Kitchen Garden at Mount Vernon

“…impress it on the gardener to have every thing in his garden that will be nece]ssary in the House keeping way — as vegetable is the best part of our living in the country.” – Martha Washington, 1792

Inside the Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Outside The Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Eliza Leslie’s Collared Pork with Garden Herbs

This highly herb-seasoned dish was usually served as part of the second course at the tables of the well-to-do. Collaring meat was “among the skills that the compleat housewife was expected” to know; it was likely a task Martha Washington would have overseen.

This recipe is adapted by culinary historian Nancy Carter Crump from a recipe by Philadelphian Eliza Leslie. She instructed the cook to “take the bone out of a leg of pork” and, after spreading on the filling “thick all over the meat,” to “roll it up very tightly, and tie it down with tape.” Her explanation closely parallels Samuel Johnson’s definition of collaring beef in his Dictionary of the English Language: “to roll it up, and bind it hard and close with a string or collar.”

Ingredients

1 boneless pork loin (5 pounds)

Salt

4 cups fresh breadcrumbs (preferably from a country-style loaf)

1/3 cup water

1 tablespoon dried sage

1 tablespoon dried marjoram

1 1/2 teaspoons dried sweet basil

3/4 teaspoon ground mace

3/4 to 1 teaspoon ground cloves

1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg

1 teaspoon dried thyme

1 teaspoon dried chervil

1 teaspoon dried winter savory

1/4 teaspoon dried rosemary

1 teaspoon ground black pepper

1/2 cup (1 stick) unsalted butter, melted

1 large egg, lightly beaten

2 cups water

1 cup white wine

2 to 3 dried bay leaves

Directions

1. Preheat the oven to 375°F.

2. Cut the loin nearly in half lengthwise, being careful not to cut entirely through the meat. Trim the excess fat and silver skin from the surface, and then open the loin like a book so that it lies flat. Rub well with salt on both sides.

3. Moisten the breadcrumbs with the water. In a small bowl, combine the sage, marjoram, sweet basil, mace, cloves, nutmeg, thyme, chervil, winter savory, rosemary, pepper, and 1 teaspoon of salt. Mix into the moistened breadcrumbs, and then blend in the butter and egg, combining thoroughly. Spread thickly over opened surface of the pork.

4. Carefully roll up the stuffed loin, tucking in the stuffing and gently pulling the pork over it to enclose it as you go. Using kitchen twine, tie the rolled pork securely at 2-inch intervals. Place the loin in a large Dutch oven.

5. Combine the water and wine, and pour over the loin. Add the bay leaves. Cover the Dutch oven, and roast for 2 to 2 1/2 hours to an internal temperature of about 150°F. When the pork is done, the juices will run clear when it is pierced with a fork. Remove the loin to a carving board, cover loosely with aluminum foil, and set aside to rest for about 15 minutes before slicing.

6. To serve, slice pieces of the loin on the diagonal, and arrange on a platter.

Research & images & much more are available from the Mount Vernon website, MountVernon.org.

Monday, October 29, 2018

Plants in Early American Gardens - Perennial Pea

Perennial Pea (Lathyrus latifolius)

Perennial Pea is a summer-flowering vine that Thomas Jefferson sowed in one of the oval beds at Monticello in 1807. It was an established garden plant in America before 1720. Perennial Pea is a long-lived vigorous climber with attractive blue-green leaves and showy flowers in red, pink, or rarely, white. Although European in origin, it has naturalized in many parts of the United States, especially on roadsides.

Contact The Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants at
Email chp@monticello.org
Phone 434-984-9819

Saturday, October 27, 2018

Plants in Early American Gardens - Gaura

Gaura (Gaura lindheimeri)

Although native to Louisiana, Texas, and parts of Mexico, Gaura is hardy as far north as Washington state and eastern Massachusetts. It was introduced into England in 1850 and named for the great German botanist Ferdinand Jacob Lindheimer. Peter Henderson noted in his Handbook of Plants (1890) that this was the only species "in general cultivation." He continued to observe that the "profusion of its spikes of graceful flowers, makes it a valuable plant for garden decoration; and the flowers are very useful for bouquets or vases."

Contact The Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants at
Email chp@monticello.org
Phone 434-984-9819

Thursday, October 25, 2018

Plants in Early American Gardens - Early Jersey Wakefield Cabbage

Early Jersey Wakefield Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv.)

Numerous types of cabbages were planted in Thomas Jefferson's gardens throughout his lifetime, including French, Milan, Savoy, Ox-heart, Roman, Scotch, Sugarloaf, York, and Winter. Early Jersey Wakefield forms a compact, somewhat conical head up to 15” long and 7” wide with glaucous-green leaves. First grown in New Jersey in 1840, it is a fine early-heading variety with a sweet flavor and was popular in 19th-century markets.

Contact The Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants at
Email chp@monticello.org
Phone 434-984-9819

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

South Carolina - Plantation Houses for the Slaves, who worked the Land

1800 View of Mulberry, House & Street, Thomas Coram (1756 – 1811), The Carolina Art Association Gibbes Museum of Art, Charleston, South Carolina. This is the earliest known depiction of a plantation house with rows of single-room slave cabins leading to the powerful owner's house.

Tuesday, October 23, 2018

Plants in Early American Gardens - Green-and-Gold

Green-and-Gold (Chrysogonum virginianum)

Chrysogonum virginianum is a North American native perennial that ranges from Pennsylvania to Florida and Louisiana. This spreading, repeat-flowering plant works well as a groundcover and in woodland gardens and rain gardens. Green-and-gold is evergreen in warmer zones.

Contact The Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants at
Email chp@monticello.org
Phone 434-984-9819

Monday, October 22, 2018

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Plants in Early American Gardens - Possum Haw

Possum Haw (Viburnum nudum)

This handsome shrub is native from New York to Louisiana and was first introduced to European gardens in 1752. While living in Paris, Thomas Jefferson desired to introduce many North American species to his European friends. In 1786, he wrote to the Philadelphia nurseryman John Bartram, Jr. requesting seed of various native trees and shrubs, including this species.

Contact The Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants at
Email chp@monticello.org
Phone 434-984-9819

Saturday, October 20, 2018

South Carolina - Rice Plantation Rose Hill

Rose Hill c 1820. Unidentified artist. Charleston Museum, South Carolina. Home owned by Nathaniel Heyward (1766-1851) & his wife Henrietta Manigault (1769-1827), the rice plantation Rose Hill on the Combhee River was home to 152 slaves. Rose Hill is also illustrated in the marginialia of the diary of their son Charles (1802-1866) which is at the Gibbes Museum of Art in Charleston

Friday, October 19, 2018

Plants in Early American Gardens - Lewis' Prairie Flax

Lewis' Prairie Flax (Linum perenne lewisii)

In 1806, Lewis and Clark observed this western North American perennial in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains. It was named Linum Lewisii after Capt. Meriwether Lewis. This subspecies, which is more robust than the common European species, bears funnel-shaped, clear blue flowers on slender, somewhat nodding, 2-3 foot stems in early to mid-summer.

Contact The Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants at
Email chp@monticello.org
Phone 434-984-9819

Thursday, October 18, 2018

Martha Washington (1731-1802) - From Fields to Distillery - Warming Toddy Cocktail with Rye Whiskey

Martha Washington (1731-1802) - From the Garden to the Table 

While George Washington oversaw most aspects of managing Mount Vernon's  pleasure gardens & grounds, Martha Washington oversaw the Kitchen Garden (The Lower Garden), allowing her to keep fruits and vegetables on the table year round.

The Kitchen Garden at Mount Vernon

“…impress it on the gardener to have every thing in his garden that will be nece]ssary in the House keeping way — as vegetable is the best part of our living in the country.” – Martha Washington, 1792

Inside the Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Outside The Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Warming Toddy Cocktail

By 1799, George Washington had become one of the largest whiskey producers in the United States. This recipe uses George Washington's Straight Rye Whiskey made & sold at Mount Vernon. See on-site at the Distillery.

Ingredients

1.5 oz. George Washington’s Straight Rye Whiskey per mug

1 tsp. honey per mug

1 Lemon Ginger Hot Toddy 

Directions

Open the toddy kit and fill provided spice bag with about 1 tablespoon of spices, then securely tie with provided string.

Steep spices in boiling water for 5 minutes, then remove spice bags from the pot.

While spices are steeping, prepare your mugs by adding 1 teaspoon (more or less to taste) of honey and one shot of whiskey.

After removing spice bags, carefully pour the steeped liquid into each mug and stir with a cinnamon stick. 

Research & images & much more are available from the Mount Vernon website, MountVernon.org.

Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Plants in Early American Gardens - Giant Musselburgh Leeks

Giant Musselburgh Leeks (Allium ampeloprasum cv.)

The garden leek is a Mediterranean species that was cultivated by the Egyptians as early as 3,200 BCE. Jefferson planted a variety of Flag Leek in his vegetable garden at Monticello in 1812. The Giant Musselburgh Leek originated in England in the early 1800s, and was praised by Fearing Burr in Field and Garden Vegetables of America (1863) as “[h]ardy and of excellent quality.”

For more information & the possible availability
Contact The Tho Jefferson Center for Historic Plants or The Shop at Monticello 

Monday, October 15, 2018

From Garden to Table - Cow's Horn Okra

Cow's Horn Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv.)

Thomas Jefferson frequently grew okra at Monticello after his retirement in 1809, often as a companion plant to his “tomatas.” Jefferson family recipes include various types of okra stews in which okra was blended with tomatoes and other tangy vegetables. A member of the Mallow family, okra is a highly ornamental vegetable with large, tropical leaves and handsome yellow flowers. 'Cow's Horn' is a southern heirloom variety with distinctive curved fruits.

For more information & the possible availability
Contact The Tho Jefferson Center for Historic Plants or The Shop at Monticello 

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Saturday, October 13, 2018

Plants in Early American Gardens - Red Wethersfield Onion

Red Wethersfield Onion (Allium cepa cv.)

Thomas Jefferson grew several types of onion at Monticello, including Madeira, Spanish, Tree, and White. The Red Wethersfield Onion is a 19th-century variety that derives its name from Wethersfield, Connecticut, where it reputably originated. It forms a large, flattened bulb 5” in diameter with purplish white, mildly pungent flesh.

For more information & the possible availability
Contact The Tho Jefferson Center for Historic Plants or The Shop at Monticello 

Friday, October 12, 2018

18C Children & American Gardens out windows

 1710 Justus Engelhardt Kuhn (Colonial American artist, fl 1707-1717)  Henry Darnall III


 1710 Justus Engelhardt Kuhn (Colonial American artist, fl 1707-1717)  Henry Darnall III