Thursday, December 3, 2020

Garden to Table - Colonial American Alcohol Trivia

Colonial American Alcohol Trivia

The Puritans loaded more beer than water onto the Mayflower before they cast off for the New World. 

There wasn’t any cranberry sauce, mashed potatoes, sweet potatoes, or pumpkin pie to eat at the first Thanksgiving. However, there was beer, brandy, gin, & wine to drink. 

A brewery was one of Harvard College’s first construction projects. That was to ensure a steady supply of beer for the student dining hall. 

The early colonialists made alcoholic beverages from what was available. That included carrots, tomatoes, onions, beets, celery, squash, corn silk, dandelions, & goldenrod. 

The distillation of rum became early Colonial New England’s largest & most prosperous industry. 

A traveler through the Delaware Valley in 1753 compiled a list of the drinks he encountered. All but three of the 48 contained alcohol. 

The Reverend Elijah Craig, a Baptist minister, made the first Kentucky whiskey in 1789. 

The distillation of whiskey led to the first test of federal power. It was the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794. 

The laws of most American colonies required towns to license suitable persons to sell wine & spirits. 

Colonial taverns were often required to be located near the church or meetinghouse. 

George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, & Thomas Jefferson all enjoyed brewing or distilling their own alcohol beverages.

The Colonial Army supplied its troops with a daily ration of four ounces of either rum or whiskey.

Religious services, court sessions, & voting venues were often in the major tavern of Colonial American towns. 

Thomas Jefferson wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence in a tavern in Philadelphia. 

The first signer of the Declaration of Independence, John Hancock, was an alcohol dealer. 

Before he took his famous ride, Paul Revere apparently had two drinks of rum. 

The patriot Patrick Henry (“Give me liberty or give me death”) was a bar tender. 

President Martin Van Buren was born in his father’s tavern. 

Alewives in Colonial America brewed a special high proof “groaning ale” for pregnant women to drink during labor. 


American Alcohol Trivia Resources:

Burns, E. The Spirit of America: The Social History of Alcohol. Philadelphia: Temple U Press, 2004.

Furnas, J. The Life & Times of the Late Demon Rum. Putnam’s Sons, 1965.

Grimes, W. Straight Up or On the Rocks: A Cultural History of American Drink. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1993

Lender, M. & Martin, J. Drinking in America. NY: Free Press, 1982.

Meacham, S. Every Home a Distillery. Alcohol, Gender, & Technology in the Colonial Chesapeake. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U Press, 2013.

Wednesday, December 2, 2020

Garden to Table at Mt Vernon - Syllabub with Sherry

Martha Washington (1731-1802) - From the Garden to the Table 

While George Washington oversaw most aspects of managing Mount Vernon's  pleasure gardens & grounds, Martha Washington oversaw the Kitchen Garden (The Lower Garden), allowing her to keep fruits and vegetables on the table year round.

The Kitchen Garden at Mount Vernon

“…impress it on the gardener to have every thing in his garden that will be nece]ssary in the House keeping way — as vegetable is the best part of our living in the country.” – Martha Washington, 1792

Inside the Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Outside The Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Syllabub

Syllabub was a fashionable drink in Colonial America. Known in England since Tudor times, it was sipped or spooned from “special syllabub glasses, so that the effect” of highly whipped cream above, “contrasting with the clear liquid below could be fully appreciated.”

Whether consumed as a spooned dessert or as a sipped beverage, syllabub has not lost its appeal in modern times. This version is based on popular eighteenth-century recipes by E. Smith and Elizabeth Raffald.

This recipe is a modern adaptation of the 18th-century original. It was created by culinary historian Nancy Carter Crump for the book Dining with the Washingtons.

Ingredients

2 1/2 cups heavy cream

3/4 cup sugar

Juice and zest of 1 large lemon

1 cup sweet white wine

1/2 cup cream sherry

Directions

Combine the cream, sugar, and lemon zest in the bowl of an electric mixer.

Combine the lemon juice, white wine, and sherry, blending together well. Mixing on low speed, slowly pour into the cream mixture, whipping for about 10 minutes until the syllabub is light and foamy.

Cover the bowl with plastic wrap, and set in the refrigerator to chill for about 8 hours, or overnight, to let the flavors blend together. Stir the syllabub at least once while chilling to make sure the ingredients are thoroughly combined.

Pour the chilled syllabub into small wine glasses, cover with plastic wrap, and refrigerate for at least 8 hours, or overnight.

To serve, place the chilled glasses of syllabub on dessert plates set with long-handled spoons.

Research & images & much more are available from the Mount Vernon website, MountVernon.org.

Garden to Table - Apples to Cider to Wine

Vinetum Britannicum, or, A treatise of cider and other wines extracted from fruits growing in this kingdom : with the method of propagating all sorts of vinous fruit-trees : and a description of the new-invented ingenio or mill for the more expeditious making of cider: : and also the right way of making metheglin and birch-wine : to which is added A discourse teaching the best way of improving bees. John Worlidge  London : Printed for Thomas Dring, 1691

Most of the 17C & 18C emigrants to America drank hard cider. simply because water was thought not to be a trusted source of daily fluids, so beer, ale, fruit brandy, & cider were more sanitary substitutes. Apples were one of the earliest known crops in the English-speaking New World; ships' manifests show young saplings being carefully planted in barrels & many hopeful farmers bringing bags of seed with them. Within 35 years of the settlement of Jamestown in 1607, the land was turned to grow lucrative tobacco plus edible cash crops like rice, maize, & apples, since they also would have some commercial value in the markets of growing like London.

The earliest written mention of a cider press seems to have been on the Mayflower in 1620. Halfway through the journey, the ship was caught in a storm & one of its beams cracked badly enough to warrant the consideration of turning back to England. "The great iron screw" was taken from a  cider press, helping brace the damaged beam to keep the ship from breaking up & make it to the New World.  Nine days after the Puritans landed William Blackstone is recorded planting the 1st apple trees in the New England colonies. John Winthrop, governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1632, recorded his tenants paying their rent on Governor's Island in 2 bushels of apples a year. In 1634, Lord Baltimore instructed settlers of the new colony of Maryland to carry across the sea "kernalls of peares & apples, especially of Pipins, Pearemains, & Deesons for maykinge thereafter of Cider & Perry."
Vinetum Britannicum, or, A treatise of cider and other wines extracted from fruits growing in this kingdom : with the method of propagating all sorts of vinous fruit-trees : and a description of the new-invented ingenio or mill for the more expeditious making of cider: : and also the right way of making metheglin and birch-wine : to which is added A discourse teaching the best way of improving bees. John Worlidge London : Printed for Thomas Dring, 1691

Old-Time Recipes for Home Made Wines Cordials & Liqueurs (1919) by Helen S. Wright
General Rules for Making Cider

Always choose perfectly ripe & sound fruit. Pick the apples by hand. (An active boy with the bag slung over his shoulder will soon clear a tree. Apples that have lain any time on the soil contract an earthy taste, which will always be found in the cider.)

After sweating, & before being ground, wipe them dry, & if any are found bruised or rotten, put them in a heap by themselves, for an inferior cider to make vinegar.

Always use hair cloths, instead of straw, to place between the layers of pomace. The straw when heated, gives a disagreeable taste to the cider.

As the cider runs from the press, let it pass through a hair sieve into a large open vessel that will hold as much juice as can be expressed in one day. In a day, or sometimes less, the pomace will rise to the top, & in a short time grow very thick. When little white bubbles break through it, draw off the liquor by a spigot, placed about three inches from the bottom, so that the lees may be left quietly behind.

The cider must be drawn off into very clean, sweet casks & closely watched. The moment the white bubbles before mentioned are perceived rising at the bung-hole, rack it again. When the fermentation is completely at an end, fill up the cask with cider, in all respects like that already contained in it, & bung it up tight, previous to which a tumbler of sweet oil may be poured into the bung-hole.

After being made & barrelled it should be allowed to ferment until it acquires the desired flavor, for perfectly sweet cider is not desirable. In the meantime clean barrels for its reception should be prepared thus: Some clean strips of rag are dipped into melted sulphur, lighted & hung in the bung-hole, & the bung laid loosely on the end of the rag. This is to allow the sulphur vapor to well fill the barrel. Tie up a half-pint of mustard-seed in a coarse muslin rag & put it into the barrel, then put your cider in. Now add the isinglass, which “fines” the cider but does not help to keep it sweet. This is the old-fashioned way, & will keep cider in the same condition as it went into the barrel, if kept in a cool place, for a year. The sulphur vapor checks the fermentation, & the sulphur in the mustard-seed keeps it checked. We hear that professional cider dealers are now using the bisulphite of lime instead of the mustard-seed & the sulphur vapor. This bisulphite of lime is the same as the “preserving powder.” It is only another form of using the sulphur, but it is more convenient & perhaps more effectual. Another method is to add sugar, one & a half pounds sugar to a gallon of the cider, & let it ferment. This makes a fermented, clear, good cider, but sweet. It lasts sweet about six months, if kept in a cool situation.

Preparatory to bottling cider it should be examined, to see whether it be clear & sparkling. If not, it should be clarified in a similar way to beer, & left for a fortnight. The night before it is intended to put it Into bottles, the bung should be taken out of the cask, & left so until the next day, when it may be bottled, but not corked down until the day after, as, if this be done at once, many of the bottles will burst by keeping. The best corks & champagne bottles should be used, & it is usual to wire & cover the corks with tinfoil, after the manner of champagne. A few bottles may be kept in a warm place to ripen, or a small piece of lump sugar may be put into each bottle before corking, if the cider be wanted for immediate use, or for consumption during the cooler portion of the year, but for warm weather & for long keeping this is inadmissible. The bottled stock should be stored in a cool cellar, when the quality will be greatly improved by age.

TO CAN CIDER
Cider, if taken when first made, brought to the boiling heat, & canned, precisely as fruit is canned, will keep from year to year without any change of taste. Canned up this way in the fall, it may be kept a half-dozen years or longer, as good as when first made. It is better that the cider be settled & poured off from the dregs, & when brought to boiling heat the scum that gathers on the surface taken off; but the only precaution necessary to preservation of the cider is the sealing of it air tight when boiling hot. The juice of other fruit can, no doubt, be preserved in the same way. To all tastes not already corrupted by strong drinks, these un-fermented juices are very delicious. The juice of the grape is better than wine a century old, & more healthy...

BOILING CIDER
To prepare cider for boiling, the first process is to filter it immediately on coming from the press. This is easiest done by placing some sticks crosswise in the bottom of a barrel,—a flour barrel with a single head is the best,—wherein an inch hole has been bored, & covering these sticks with say four inches of clean rye or wheat straw, & then filling the barrel to within a foot of the top with clean sand or coal dust,—sand is the best. Pour the cider as it comes from the press into the top of this barrel, drawing it off as soon as it comes out at the bottom into air-tight casks, & let it stand in the cellar until March. Then draw it out with as little exposure to the air as possible, put it into bottles that can be tightly & securely corked, & in two months it will be fit for use.

TO CLEAR CIDER
To clear & improve cider generally take two quarts of ground horseradish & one pound of thick gray filtering paper to the barrel, & either shake or stir until the paper has separated into small shreds, & let it stand for twenty-four hours, when the cider may be drawn off by means of a siphon or a stop cock. Instead of paper, a preparation of wool may be taken, which is to be had in the market, & which is preferable to paper, as it has simply to be washed with water, when it may be used again.

CIDER, TO PRESERVE & KEEP SWEET
1. To one barrel of cider, put in one pound of mustard-seed, two pounds of raisins, one-quarter pound of the sticks (bark) of cinnamon. 2. When the cider in the barrel is in a lively fermentation, add as much white sugar as will be equal to one-quarter or three-quarters of a pound to each gallon of cider (according as the apples are sweet or sour); let the fermentation proceed until the liquid has the taste to suit, then add one-quarter of an ounce of sulphite (not sulphate) of lime to each gallon of cider, shake well, & let it stand three days, & bottle for use. The sulphite should first be dissolved in a quart or so of cider before introducing it into the barrel of cider. 3. When fermentation commences in one barrel, draw off the liquor into another one, straining through a flannel cloth. Put into the cider three-quarters of an ounce of the oil of sassafras, & the same of the oil of winter green, well shaken up in a pint of alcohol. But one difficulty is said to pertain to this preparation of cider. It is so palatable that people won't keep it long.
CIDER CHAMPAGNE
Five gallons good cider, one quart spirit, one & one-quarter pounds honey or sugar. Mix, & let them rest for a fortnight, then fine with one gill of skimmed milk. This, put up in champagne bottles, silvered, & labelled, has often been sold for champagne. It opens very sparkling.

CHERRY CIDER
Seven gallons of apple cider, two quarts of dried black cherries, one pint of dried blueberries, one-half pint of elderberries, eighteen pounds of brown sugar.

DEVONSHIRE CIDER
The apples, after being plucked, are left in heaps in the orchard for some time, to complete their ripening, & render them more saccharine. They are then crushed between grooved cylinders, surmounted by a hopper, or in a circular trough, by two vertical edge-wheels of wood moved by a horse; after passing through which, they are received into large tubs or crocks, & are then called pomace. They are afterwards laid on the vat in alternate layers of the pomace & clean straw, called reeds. They are then pressed, a little water being occasionally added. The juice passes through a hair sieve, or similar strainer, & is received in a large vessel, whence it is run into casks or open vats, where everything held in mechanical suspension is deposited. The fermentation is often slow of being developed; though the juice be set in November or December, the working sometimes hardly commences till March. Till this time the cider is sweet; it now becomes pungent & vinous, & is ready to be racked for use. If the fermentation continue, it is usual to rack it again into a clean cask that has been well sulphured out, & to leave behind the head & sediment; or two or three cans of cider are put into a clean cask, & a match of brimstone burned in it. It is then agitated, by which the fermentation of that quantity is completely stopped. The cask is then nearly filled, the fermentation of the whole is checked, the process of racking is repeated until it becomes so, & is continued from time to time till the cider is in a quiet state & fit for drinking.

FRENCH CIDER
After the fruit is mashed in a mill, between iron cylinders, it is allowed to remain in a large tun or tub for fourteen or fifteen hours, before pressing. The juice is placed in casks, which are kept quite full, & so placed under gawntrees, or stillions, that small tubs may be put under them, to receive the matter that works over. At the end of three or four days for sweet cider, & nine or ten days for strong cider, it is racked into sulphured casks, & then stored in a cool place.

WESTERN CIDER
To one pound of sugar, add one-half ounce of tartaric acid, two tablespoonfuls of good yeast. Dissolve the sugar in one quart of warm water; put all in a gallon jug, shake it well, fill the jug with pure cold water, let it stand uncorked twelve hours, & it is fit for use.

CIDER WITHOUT APPLES
To each gallon of cold water, put one pound common sugar, one-half ounce tartaric acid, one tablespoonful of yeast. Shake well, make in the evening, & it will be fit for use next day. Make in a keg a few gallons at a time, leaving a few quarts to make into next time, not using yeast again until keg needs rinsing. If it gets a little sour, make a little more into it, or put as much water with it as there is cider, & put it with the vinegar. If it is desired to bottle this cider by manufacturers of small drinks, you will proceed as follows: five gallons hot water, thirty pounds brown sugar, three-quarters pound tartaric acid, twenty-five gallons cold water, three pints of hops or brewers' yeast worked into paste with three-quarters pound flour, & one pint water will be required in making this paste. Put all together in a barrel, which it will fill, & let it work twenty-four hours, the yeast running out at a bung all the time, by putting in a little occasionally to keep it full. Then bottle, putting in two or three broken raisins to each bottle, & it will nearly equal champagne.

CIDER WINE
Let the new cider from sour apples (ripe, sound fruit preferred) ferment from one to three weeks, as the weather is warm or cool. When it has attained to a lively fermentation, add to each gallon, according to its acidity, from one-half pound to two pounds of white crushed sugar, & let the whole ferment until it possesses precisely the taste which it is desired should be permanent. In this condition pour out one quart of the cider, & add for each gallon of cider one-quarter ounce of sulphite of lime, not sulphate. Stir the powder & cider until intimately mixed, & return the emulsion to the fermenting liquid. Agitate briskly & thoroughly for a few moments, & then let the cider settle. Fermentation will cease at once. When, after a few days, the cider has become clear, draw off carefully, to avoid the sediment, & bottle. If loosely corked, which is better, it will become a sparkling cider wine, & may be kept indefinitely long.

AMERICAN CHAMPAGNE (With Cider)
Seven quarts good cider (crab-apple cider is the best), one pint best fourth-proof brandy, one quart genuine champagne wine, one quart milk, one-half ounce of bitartrate of potassa. Mix & let stand a short time; bottle while fermenting. An excellent imitation.

CHAMPAGNE CIDER
Champagne cider is made as follows: To five gallons of good cider put three pints of strained honey, or one & one-eighth pounds of good white sugar. Stir well & set it aside for a week. Clarify the cider with one-half gill of skimmed milk, or one teaspoonful of dissolved isinglass, & add one & one-half pints of pure spirits. After two or three days bottle the clear cider, & it will become sparkling. In order to produce a slow fermentation, the casks containing the fermenting liquor must be bunged up tight. It is a great object to retain much of the carbonic gas in the cider, so as to develop itself after being bottled.

CHAMPAGNE CIDER, NO. 2
One hogshead good pale vinous cider, three gallons proof spirit (pale), fourteen pounds honey or sugar. Mix, & let them remain together in a temperate situation for one month; then add one quart orange-flower water, & fine it down with one-half gallon skimmed milk. This will be very pale; & a similar article, when bottled in champagne bottles, silvered & labelled, has been often sold to the ignorant for champagne. It opens very brisk, if managed properly.

BURGUNDY CHAMPAGNE (With Cider)
Fourteen pounds loaf sugar, twelve pounds brown sugar (pale), ten gallons warm water, one ounce white tartar. Mix, & at a proper temperature add one pint yeast. Afterwards, add one gallon sweet cider, two or three bitter almonds (bruised), one quart pale spirit, one-eighth ounce orris powder.

CHAMPAGNE CIDER
Champagne cider is made as follows: To five gallons of good cider put three pints of strained honey, or one & one-eighth pounds of good white sugar. Stir well & set it aside for a week. Clarify the cider with one-half gill of skimmed milk, or one teaspoonful of dissolved isinglass, & add one & one-half pints of pure spirits. After two or three days bottle the clear cider, & it will become sparkling. In order to produce a slow fermentation, the casks containing the fermenting liquor must be bunged up tight. It is a great object to retain much of the carbonic gas in the cider, so as to develop itself after being bottled.

CHAMPAGNE CIDER, NO. 2
One hogshead good pale vinous cider, three gallons proof spirit (pale), fourteen pounds honey or sugar. Mix, & let them remain together in a temperate situation for one month; then add one quart orange-flower water, & fine it down with one-half gallon skimmed milk. This will be very pale; & a similar article, when bottled in champagne bottles, silvered & labelled, has been often sold to the ignorant for champagne. It opens very brisk, if managed properly.

LEMON WINE (With Cider)
Four pounds sugar, one pound raisins (bruised), two gallons water. Boil, then add one gallon cider. Ferment, & add one quart of spirits, three-quarters ounce white tartar, a few drops essence of lemon. Observe to shake the essence, with a little of the spirit, until it becomes milky, before adding it to the wine.

MADEIRA WINE (With Cider)
To five gallons prepared cider, add one-half pound loaf sugar. Let it stand ten days, draw it off carefully, fine it down, & again rack it into another cask.

ELDER-FLOWER WINE (With Cider)
Take the flowers of elder, & be careful that you don't let any stalks in; to every quart of flowers put one gallon of water, & three pounds of loaf sugar. Boil the water & sugar a quarter of an hour, then pour it on the flowers & let it work three days; then strain the wine through a hair sieve, & put it into a cask. To every ten gallons of wine add one ounce of isinglass dissolved in cider, & six whole eggs. Close it up & let it stand six months, & then bottle it.

LEMON WINE, NO. 2 (With Cider)
Four pounds sugar, one pound raisins (bruised), two gallons water. Boil, then add one gallon cider. Ferment, & add one quart of spirits, three-quarters ounce white tartar, a few drops essence of lemon. Observe to shake the essence, with a little of the spirit, until it becomes milky, before adding it to the wine.

MADEIRA WINE (With Cider)
To five gallons prepared cider, add one-half pound loaf sugar. Let it stand ten days, draw it off carefully, fine it down, & again rack it into another cask.

PORT WINE (With Cider)
To ten gallons prepared cider, add one & one-half gallons good port wine, two & one-half quarts wild grapes (clusters), two ounces bruised rhatany root, three-quarters ounce tincture of kino, three-quarters pound loaf sugar, one-half gallon spirits. Let this stand ten days; color if too light, with tincture of rhatany, then rack it off & fine it. This should be repeated until the color is perfect & the liquid clear.

PORT WINE British Style (With Cider)
1. Two gallons damson juice, two gallons cider, three-quarters ounce sloe juice, one pound sugar, one pound honey. Ferment, then add one quart spirit, one gallon red cape, a little over one ounce of red tartar (dissolved), the same of powder of catechu, one-tenth ounce bruised ginger, one-tenth ounce cassia, a few cloves. Mix well with two tablespoonfuls of brandy coloring.
2. Two pounds bullace, ten pounds damsons, one & one-half gallons water. Boil the water, skim it, & pour it boiling hot on the fruit; let it stand four or six days at least. During that time bruise the fruit or squeeze it with your hands. Then draw or pour it off into a cask, & to every gallon of liquor, put two pounds & a half of fine sugar, or rather more; put some yeast on a slice of bread (warm) to work it. When done working, put a little brandy into the cask & fill it up. Bung it up close & let it stand six or twelve months; then bottle it off. This wine is nearer in flavor to port than any other. If made with cold water, it will be equally as good, but of a different color.
3. Five gallons cider, one gallon elder juice, one gallon port wine, one & one-quarter pint brandy, one & one-fifth ounces red tartar, one-fifth ounce catechu, one gill finings, one ounce logwood. Mix well & bung close.

RAISIN WINE (With Cider)
There are various modes of preparing this wine...For raisin wine without sugar, put to every gallon of soft water eight pounds of fresh Smyrna or Malaga raisins; let them steep one month, stirring every day. Then drain the liquor & put it into the cask, filling it up as it works over; this it will do for two months. When the hissing has in a great measure subsided, add brandy & honey, & paper.. This wine should remain three years untouched; it may then be drank from the cask, or bottled...Raisin wine is sometimes made in large quantities, by merely putting the raisins in the cask, & filling it up with water, the proportion as above; carefully pick out all stalks. In six months rack the wine into fresh casks, & put to each the proportion of brandy & honey. In cider countries & plentiful apple years, a most excellent raisin wine is made by employing cider instead of water, & steeping in it the raisins.

SHERRY WINE (With Cider)
To five gallons prepared cider add one quart spirits, three-quarters of a pound of raisins, three quarts good sherry, & a few drops oil bitter almonds (dissolved in alcohol). Let it stand ten days, & draw it off carefully. Fine it down, & again rack it into another cask.

SHERRY WINE - London Style (With Cider)
Twelve pounds chopped raisins, three gallons soft water, one pound sugar, one-half ounce white tartar, two quarts cider. Let them stand together in a close vessel one month; stir frequently. Then add one quart of spirits, one-quarter pound wild cherries bruised. Let them stand one month longer & fine with isinglass.

STRAWBERRY WINE, NO. 1 (With Cider)
Twelve gallons bruised strawberries, ten gallons cider, seven gallons water, twenty-five pounds sugar. Ferment, then add one-half ounce bruised orris root, one-half ounce bruised bitter almonds, one-half ounce bruised cloves, six ounces red tartar.

WHORTLEBERRY OR BILBERRY WINE (With Cider)
Take one & one-half gallons of cold soft water, one & one-half gallons cider, two gallons berries. Ferment. Mix five pounds sugar, four-fifths ounce tartar in fine power; add four-fifths ounce ginger in powder, one-half handful lavender & rosemary leaves, one & two-thirds pints British spirits.

Tuesday, December 1, 2020

Garden to Table at Mt Vernon - Punch with Rum

Martha Washington (1731-1802) - From the Garden to the Table 

While George Washington oversaw most aspects of managing Mount Vernon's  pleasure gardens & grounds, Martha Washington oversaw the Kitchen Garden (The Lower Garden), allowing her to keep fruits and vegetables on the table year round.

The Kitchen Garden at Mount Vernon

“…impress it on the gardener to have every thing in his garden that will be nece]ssary in the House keeping way — as vegetable is the best part of our living in the country.” – Martha Washington, 1792

Inside the Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Outside The Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Punch

The popularity of punch is centuries old. East India merchants introduced it to the British in the late 1600s. William Byrd II, who founded the city of Richmond, referred to punch as “a very good, pleasant and healthful drink,” and Virginians enjoyed the beverage at various social gatherings.

Punch is often mentioned in connection with the Washingtons, who served it at many of their receptions and as part of offering a hospitable welcome to guests at Mount Vernon. For example, Julian Niemcewicz, who visited from Poland in 1798, noted that when he arrived, Martha Washington “appeared after a few minutes, welcomed us most graciously and had punch served.”

This sweet and tart libation comes together quickly and easily. Be advised, however, that it needs to be put in the refrigerator for several hours so the ingredients can marry and the punch can chill completely.

This recipe is a modern adaptation of the 18th-century original. It was created by culinary historian Nancy Carter Crump for the book Dining with the Washingtons.

Ingredients

Juice of 5 limes

Water as needed

1 1/2 cups dark brown sugar

4 cups dark rum

2 cups French brandy

Directions

1. Mix the lime juice with an equal amount of water in a lidded 1-gallon jar. Add the sugar, and stir until dissolved. Stir in the rum and brandy, mixing until combined. Cover with the lid, and refrigerate for at least 3 hours, or until well chilled.

2. To serve, place ice rings adorned with lime slices (if desired) in a large bowl, and pour in the punch.

Research & images & much more are available from the Mount Vernon website, MountVernon.org.

Garden to Table at Mt Vernon - Rum

 Martha Washington (1731-1802) - From the Garden to the Table 

While George Washington oversaw most aspects of managing Mount Vernon's  pleasure gardens & grounds, Martha Washington oversaw the Kitchen Garden (The Lower Garden), allowing her to keep fruits and vegetables on the table year round.

The Kitchen Garden at Mount Vernon

“…impress it on the gardener to have every thing in his garden that will be nece]ssary in the House keeping way — as vegetable is the best part of our living in the country.” – Martha Washington, 1792

Inside the Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Outside The Kitchen at Mount Vernon

In the matter of eating & drinking George Washington was temperate. For breakfast he ordinarily had tea & Indian cakes with butter & perhaps honey, of which he was very fond. His supper was equally light, consisting of perhaps tea & toast, with wine, & he usually retired at nine o'clock. Dinner was the main meal of the day at Mount Vernon, & usually was served at two o'clock. One such meal is thus described by a guest:  "He thanked us, desired us to be seated, & to excuse him a few moments.... The President came & desired us to walk in to dinner & directed  us where to sit, (no grace was said).... The dinner was very good, a small roasted pigg, boiled leg of lamb, roasted fowls, beef, peas, lettice, cucumbers, artichokes, etc., puddings, tarts, etc. etc."   The General ordinarily confined himself to a few courses & if offered anything very rich, he would protest, "That is too good for me." He often drank beer with the meal, with one or two glasses of wine & perhaps as many more afterward, often eating nuts, another delicacy with him, as he sipped the wine.

Rum

Rum represented an important trade commodity between British North America and the Caribbean. Exterior Of The Curing House and Stills, Antigua, by William Clark, c. 1823, Courtesy, The British Library. [1786.c.9].

During the colonial era, rum was the preferred alcoholic drink of American colonists. By one estimate, colonists consumed 3.7 gallons annually per head by the time of the American Revolution.1 Naturally, when Britain sought to closely regulate and impose taxes on molasses, used in rum production, a spirited protest ensued. George Washington’s political, military, and personal relationship with rum exemplified the centrality of the drink to colonial society and American independence.

English rum distillation originated in Barbados in the 1630s. Although England’s Caribbean sugar colonies continued to produce the highest quality and best tasting rum, the mainland colonies in North America eventually took advantage of the growing demand for the popular drink. By the late seventeenth century, New England began distilling rum.

American production of rum boomed, as the colonies traded excess grains for molasses with Caribbean territories. By the English Navigation Acts, the colonies were restricted to trading for molasses with fellow English colonies. However, American colonial merchants flouted the regulations by smuggling cheaper molasses from French colonies, particularly Saint Domingue (Haiti), in the West Indies. With the 1733 Molasses Act, Britain imposed legislation aimed at limiting colonial access to foreign molasses. Instead, large-scale smuggling of molasses became even more commonplace.  While the Molasses Act should have raised 25,000 pounds each year, British officials collected only 259 pounds in 1735. 

The Molasses Act anticipated controversial British policies toward the American colonies in the 1760s. In 1764, Britain passed the Sugar Act, legislation that lowered taxation on molasses from six pence per gallon to three, yet encouraged the British Navy to put an end to smuggling. Upon discovering any contraband, the navy was permitted to seize half of the findings. In 1774, Robert Adam, a Scottish merchant residing in Alexandria, Virginia, wrote to George Washington arguing that rum should be imported “from the West Indies here, and not the Round about way from Philadelphia here at Second hand.”2 The tight regulation of molasses, accompanied by a war on colonial merchants, conducted by the Royal Navy, ultimately contributed to the American Revolution.

Like other prominent colonists, Washington interacted with rum in many aspects of his life. For instance, in order to win election in the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1758, Washington attracted voters with charm, entertainment and rum. During his campaign, he supplied voters with 28 gallons of rum, 50 gallons of rum punch, and 82 gallons of wine, beer and cider. 

Just as Washington used rum to gain political victory, he also used the drink to boost morale among his soldiers. In June 1779, Washington informed General Alexander McDougall: “I have written to the Commissary urging him if possible to have a pretty good stock of rum at the forts to supply more constantly the fatigue parties.”3 Washington shared the view of many people at the time that liquor helped to keep tired people awake. A supply of rum could mean the difference between an exhausted soldier and one ready to wage war. 

Finally, Washington used rum to stabilize plantation life at Mount Vernon. In exchange for a day’s work, he gave his slaves an allowance of liquor. When Washington accused James Butler, an overseer at Mount Vernon, of allowing his slaves 36 pints of rum, Butler claimed that he had given a much smaller portion of “no more than a pint of rum & a pound of Meat to each man.”4 Even as Washington supplied rum to his enslaved workers, he also mandated limits to the practice. 

After the American Revolution, rum production continued in the British West Indies, but America’s consumption of the drink significantly decreased. Instead, Americans turned toward whiskey production. Washington, too, reflected this trend, constructing his own distillery at Mount Vernon in 1797.

By Emily Niekrasz, George Washington University

Notes:

1. Ian Williams, Rum: A Social and Sociable History of the Real Spirit of 1776 (New York: Nation Books, 2005), 166.

2. “Robert Adam to George Washington, 13 January 1774,” The Papers of George Washington Digital Edition, ed. Theodore J. Crackel (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2008).

3. “George Washington to Major General Alexander McDougall, 28 June 1779,” The Papers of George Washington Digital Edition, ed. Theodore J. Crackel (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2008).

4. “George Washington to Major General Alexander McDougall, 28 June 1779,” The Papers of George Washington Digital Edition, ed. Theodore J. Crackel (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2008).

Bibliography: 

Pogue, Dennis J. Founding Spirits: George Washington and the Beginnings of the American Whiskey Industry. Harbour Books, 2011.

Salinger, Sharon V. Taverns and Drinking in Early America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Thompson, Peter. Rum Punch and Revolution: Taverngoing and Public Life in Eighteenth Century Philadelphia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press: 1999.

Williams, Ian. Rum: A Social and Sociable History of the Real Spirit of 1776. New York: Nation Books, 2005.

Monday, November 30, 2020

Garden to Table - What Did the Patriots Eat & Drink as They Planned a Revolution?


...Walter Staib, executive chef at Philadelphia's City Tavern & host of PBS' “A Taste of History,” contends that among those who signed the Declaration in 1776 were America's earliest foodies. “While [farm-to-table & foodie movements] are trendy today,” he says, “the founders were doing it out of necessity.”

He points out that colonial America lacked the transportation infrastructure to deliver foods from faraway lands: “If it was around, you ate it.” What was around were legumes, produce & anything that could be foraged or hunted. In the mid-Atlantic, seafood was especially popular, reflecting the abundance of the Delaware River, which was then, says Staib, “pristine & teeming with fish.” Today, following two centuries of pollution that decreased water quality & diminished fish populations, it is in the early stages of a rebound.

George Washington was exceedingly fond of dining on seafood. For nearly 40 years, the three fisheries he operated along the ten-mile Potomac shoreline that bordered Mount Vernon processed more than a million fish annually. Among the items on the plantation’s menu were crabmeat casseroles, oyster gumbos & salmon mousse.

Thomas Jefferson admired French fare above all, & he is credited, according to Staib, with popularizing frites, ice cream & champagne. He is also often credited—although incorrectly—with the introduction of macaroni & cheese to the American palate. It was, in fact, his enslaved chef James Hemings who, via Jefferson’s kitchen, brought the creamy southern staple to Monticello. Trained at the elite Château de Chantilly while accompanying Jefferson on a trip to France, Hemings would later become one of only two laborers enslaved by Jefferson to negotiate his freedom.

As for dessert, none of the Founding Fathers was without a sweet tooth. John Adams' wife, Abigail, regularly baked Apple Pan Dowdy, a pie-meets-cobbler hybrid that was popular in New England in the early 1800s; James Madison loved ice cream & was spoiled by his wife Dolley's creative cakes, for which she gained such renown that, to this day, supermarkets across America carry a brand of prepared pastries bearing her—albeit incorrectly spelled—name; & John Jay, in a letter sent to his father in 1790, reported that he carried chocolate with him on long journeys, likely “shaving or grating it into pots of milk,” says Kevin Paschall, chocolate maker at Philadelphia's historic Shane Confectionery, & consuming it as a drink.

The Founders, like most colonists, were fans of adult beverages. Colonial Americans drank roughly three times as much as modern Americans, primarily in the form of beer, cider, & whiskey. In Colonial Spirits: A Toast to Our Drunken History, author Steven Grasse connects this seemingly outsized consumption to the Revolutionary spirit of the time when he writes, “In the drink, a dream; & in the dream, a spark.” Reverend Michael Alan, who illustrated & helped research the book says simply: “From morning until night, people in the 18th century drank.”

Benjamin Franklin was especially unabashed about his love of “the cups.” Though Grasse writes that he was careful to advise temperance, he regularly enjoyed wine & what some might argue were early iterations of craft cocktails. His favorite, according to Alan, was milk punch, a three-ingredient brandy-based sip whose two non-alcoholic components–milk & lemon juice–washed & refined its third. Another Franklin foodie badge is his “Drinkers' Dictionary,” a compendium of Colonial slang describing the state of drunkenness. Initially printed in 1737 in the Pennsylvania Gazette, its publication made Franklin one of America's first food & drink writers.

Washington was known for racking up sizable tabs after buying drinks for friends. Recounting one particularly generous–and raucous–night wherein Washington ordered 54 bottles of Madeira, 60 bottles of Claret, & 7 full bowls of punch, Alan says “He knew how to throw down.”

Despite this, it was Jefferson, notes Grasse, who was the true oenophile of the bunch. As a young man, he drank Portuguese Madeira by the truckload, & in his post-Presidential years, he repeatedly tried & failed to cultivate grapes for winemaking at his vineyard in Monticello.

While tales of alcoholic escapades could understandably lead one to believe that the Founders were a group of party animals–save the relatively sober Alexander Hamilton, referred to by John Adams as an “insolent coxcomb” who, on the rare occasion that he drank something other than coffee, became “silly & vaporing”–it's important to note the reasons why alcohol consumption was so high.

First & foremost, drinking alcohol was a means of survival. Potable water was scarce in colonial times, writes Grasse, so almost all of what was available carried harmful diseases. Among these were smallpox, lockjaw, & the delightfully named black vomit. For colonists, drinking water meant risking one's life, & no one who could afford otherwise dared do it. Alan confirms that even children drank beer–a hard cider & molasses combination aptly named “ciderkin.” Put simply, consuming alcohol was, in the absence of clean drinking water, a means of staying hydrated.

The taverns where alcohol was consumed also played a vital role in colonial life. “Systems like the post office, libraries, even courthouses, were just being put into place,” explains Alan. “Taverns offered all of these services plus a good beer buzz.”

For political figures like the Founding Fathers, taverns were also where one went to get the inside scoop on political adversaries & posit agendas for which one hoped to gain favor. “Ben Franklin,” reports Staib, “used taverns as a tool of diplomacy.” For him, “eating, drinking, & gossiping” were negotiation tactics. It was in taverns that the Founding Fathers, “emboldened by liquid courage,” to quote Staib, & likely, after tying a few on, unfettered by the rarefied rules of governance to which all of history had subscribed, honed the concepts contained in the Declaration of Independence & the Constitution.

Of the link between food, drinks, & Revolutionary history, Alan offers this pun-intended nod: “A lot of crazy ideas can come out of a “spirited” evening of conversation.”

See Smithsonian Magazine here.

Sunday, November 29, 2020

Garden to Table - Alcohol in Colonial America

Alcohol in Colonial America began with the arrival of Europeans.  Except for several nations in the Southwest, Native Americans did not have alcohol beverages. The Apache & Zuni drank alcoholic beverages which they produced for secular consumption. The Pima & Papago produced alcohol for religious ceremonial consumption. Papago consumption was heavy. However, they limited it to a single peaceable annual ceremony. And the other tribes’ drinking was also infrequent & didn’t cause problems. 

The Puritans loaded more beer than water onboard the Mayflower before casting off for the New World.   This reflected their traditional drinking beliefs, attitudes, & behaviors. They considered alcohol to be a natural & normal part of life. They believed that God created alcohol & that it was inherently good. Indeed, Jesus both made & drank wine & approved drinking in moderate. 

Their experience was that it was safer to drink alcohol than the typically polluted water. Alcohol was also an effective analgesic. It provided the energy necessary for hard work. Alcohol served as  a social lubricant, provided entertainment, facilitated relaxation & contributed to the enjoyment of food. It also provided pharmacological pleasure. In sum, alcohol in colonial America generally enhanced the quality of life.

Beer

For hundreds of years their English ancestors had enjoyed beer & ale. People of both sexes & all ages typically drank beer with their meals.

Importing a continuing supply of beer was expensive. So the early settlers brewed their own. However, it was difficult to make the beer to which they were accustomed. That was because wild yeasts caused problems in fermentation. For this reason it resulted in a bitter, unappetizing brew.  

But these early adventurers did not give up. Wild hops grew in New England. They ordered hop seeds from England in order to cultivate an adequate supply for traditional beer. In the meantime, the colonists improvised a beer made from red & black spruce twigs boiled in water. They also made a beer from ginger. A ditty from the 1630s reflects their determination & ingenuity.

If barley be wanting to make into malt,

We must be content & think it no fault.

For we can make liquor to sweeten our lips,

Of pumpkins, & parsnips, & walnut-tree chips. 

Slowly, the colonists mastered the intricacies of brewing in the New World. Then beer became widely available. And many farmers made their own with the help of a malster. The malster malted their barley, or more often, corn. 

The colonists considered beer to be very important. For example, a brewery was one of Harvard College’s first construction projects. It was to provide a steady supply of beer for the students.  And Connecticut required each town to ensure that a place was available for the purchase of beer. 

Home brewers made the weakest & most commonly available beer by soaking grain in water. But this “small beer” spoiled quickly because of its low alcohol content. Therefore, people consumed it quickly. The homemaker brewed beer once or twice a week. “Ships beers” were stronger & also readily available. But the strongest beer, brewed with malt & extra sugar, was expensive & uncommon. 

Wine

The colonists also learned to make a wide variety of wine from fruits. These included strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, elderberries, gooseberries, & currants. They also made wines from numerous vegetables. These included carrots, tomatoes, onions, beets, celery, squash, corn silk, dandelions, & goldenrod. They also made wine from such products as flowers, herbs, & even oak leaves.  Early on, French vine-growers came to the New World to teach settlers how to cultivate grapes. 

Hard Cider

Cider had been popular in England but apples were not native to New England. Farmers promptly planted the first orchard using English seeds. Over time apples became abundant in the colonies.

People typically fermented apple juice in barrels over the winter.  Colonists sometimes added honey or cane sugar. This  increased the alcohol content & also creating natural carbonation. “Apple champagne” was a special treat. “Cider was served to every member of the family at breakfast, dinner, & supper. Cider was consumed in the fields between meals, & was a regular staple at all the communal social functions.” 

Distilled Spirits

...Rum was not commonly available until after 1650. Then, it increasingly came from the Caribbean. However, the cost of rum dropped after the colonists began importing molasses & cane sugar directly & distilled their own. By 1657, a rum distillery was operating in Boston. It was highly successful. Within a generation the production of rum became colonial New England’s largest & most prosperous industry.  Clearly, distilled spirits were a very important part of alcohol in Colonial America.

In the profitable Triangle Trade, traders took rum to England for manufactured products.  Then in West Africa they traded those products for slaves. In the West Indies they traded slaves for more molasses.  The triangle continued when New England distillers made the molasses into more rum.

This three point trading arrangement was an important part of colonial commercial life & prosperity.  Almost every important town from Massachusetts to the Carolinas had a rum distillery. They met the local demand, which had increased dramatically. 

Alcohol in Colonial America

Baron, S., & Young, J. Brewed in America: a History of Beer & Ale in the US.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1962.

Becker, D., & Siekonic, D. A Guide to Winemaking in Early America. Center Valley, PA: Privateer, 2011.

Burns, E. The Spirits of America. A Social History of Alcohol. Philadelphia. Temple U Press, 2004.

Lender, M., & Martin, J. Drinking in America. A History. London: Macmillan, 1982.

McCusker, J. Rum & the American Revolution. NY: Garland, 1989.

Meacham, S. Every Home a Distillery. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U Press, 2009.

Salinger, S. Taverns & Drinking in Early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U Press, 2002.

Schmid, S., & Schmid-Haberkamp, B. (Eds.) Drink in the Eighteenth & Nineteenth Centuries. Brookfield, VT: Pickering & Chatto, 2014. 

Smith, G. Beer in America. The Early years, 1587-1840. Boulder, CO: Siris, 1998.

Saturday, November 28, 2020

Garden to Table at Mt Vernon - Great Cake with Madeira

 

Martha Washington (1731-1802) - From the Garden to the Table 

While George Washington oversaw most aspects of managing Mount Vernon's  pleasure gardens & grounds, Martha Washington oversaw the Kitchen Garden (The Lower Garden), allowing her to keep fruits and vegetables on the table year round.

The Kitchen Garden at Mount Vernon

“…impress it on the gardener to have every thing in his garden that will be nece]ssary in the House keeping way — as vegetable is the best part of our living in the country.” – Martha Washington, 1792

Inside the Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Outside The Kitchen at Mount Vernon

In the matter of eating & drinking George Washington was temperate. For breakfast he ordinarily had tea & Indian cakes with butter & perhaps honey, of which he was very fond. His supper was equally light, consisting of perhaps tea & toast, with wine, & he usually retired at nine o'clock. Dinner was the main meal of the day at Mount Vernon, & usually was served at two o'clock. One such meal is thus described by a guest:  "He thanked us, desired us to be seated, & to excuse him a few moments.... The President came & desired us to walk in to dinner & directed  us where to sit, (no grace was said).... The dinner was very good, a small roasted pigg, boiled leg of lamb, roasted fowls, beef, peas, lettice, cucumbers, artichokes, etc., puddings, tarts, etc. etc."   The General ordinarily confined himself to a few courses & if offered anything very rich, he would protest, "That is too good for me." He often drank beer with the meal, with one or two glasses of wine & perhaps as many more afterward, often eating nuts, another delicacy with him, as he sipped the wine.

Great Cake

This is one of the few surviving recipes directly associated with Martha Washington. Great cake likely would have been served as part of a grand Christmas dinner or Twelfth Night party. It might also have been served at tea.

It was so well-liked that she had her granddaughter Martha Parke Custis copy it down for use by other members of the family. Martha Washington’s recipe, like many others of its time, is vague regarding certain ingredients as well as the method of preparation. For that reason, we used related period recipes, in addition to Mrs. Washington’s, to develop a great cake resembling the one her family knew. Sources included the original Custis family recipe, Hannah Glasse’s Rich Cake, and Elizabeth Raffald’s Bride Cake.

One of the most valuable tools in the Mount Vernon kitchen was Martha Washington's copy of The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy...By a Lady.  Martha's copy is in the Library at Mount Vernon. Hannah Glasse's (1708–1770) The Art of Cookery...was first published in 1747. It was a bestseller for a century after its first publication, dominating the English-speaking market. It was published in America from 1805.

Mrs. Washington may have owned a number of cookbooks, but her 1765 edition of Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery and a manuscript cookbook (now at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania) are the only ones known to survive. The manuscript book  (under the title Martha Washington's Booke of Cookery) is a very early compilation of 16th and 17th-century receipts and came into Martha's possession at the time of her marriage to Daniel Parke Custis who died in 1757.

The result is a rich confection, laced with brandy and Madeira, that is similar to the fruitcakes we are familiar with today. Although this cake takes some time to prepare, it keeps well when wrapped in aluminum foil and stored in a covered cake tin.

This recipe is a modern adaptation of the 18th-century original. It was created by culinary historian Nancy Carter Crump for the book Dining with the Washingtons.

Ingredients

1 1/2 cups currants

1/3 cup chopped candied orange peel

1/3 cup chopped candied lemon peel

1/3 cup chopped candied citron

3/4 cup Madeira, divided

1/4 cup French brandy

3 cups all-purpose flour, sifted

1/2 cup slivered almonds

1/2 teaspoons ground nutmeg

1/2 teaspoons ground mace

3/4 cup unsalted butter, softened

1 1/2 cups sugar

3 large eggs, separated

Sugar Icing (recipe follows) (optional)

3 large egg whites at room temperature

1 1/2 cups sugar

2 tablespoons rose water or orange-flower water

Directions

Combine the currants, orange and lemon peels, and citron in a large bowl. Add 1/2 cup of the Madeira, and stir to combine. Cover with plastic wrap, and set aside for at least 3 hours, or as long as overnight. Stir the remainder of the Madeira together with the brandy, cover, and set aside.

When ready to bake the cake, preheat the oven to 325°F. Grease and flour a 10-inch tube pan.

Drain the fruits in a large strainer set over a bowl, stirring occasionally to extract as much of the Madeira as possible. Add the strained Madeira to the set-aside Madeira and brandy.

Combine 1/4 cup of the flour with the fruit, and mix well. Add the almonds, and set aside. Sift the remaining flour with the nutmeg and mace.

In the bowl of an electric mixer, cream the butter until it is light. Add the sugar, 1/2 cup at a time, beating for several minutes after adding each ingredient. Whisk the egg yolks until they are light and smooth, and add them to the butter and sugar. Continue to beat for several minutes, until the mixture is light and fluffy.

Alternately add the spiced flour, 1/2 cup at a time, and the Madeira and brandy, beating until smooth.

In a separate bowl, beat the egg whites to form stiff peaks. By hand, gently fold them into the batter, combining lightly until well blended. By hand, fold in the fruit in thirds, mixing until well combined.

Pour the batter into the prepared pan, smoothing the top with an offset spatula or the back of a spoon. Bake for about 1 1/2 hours, or until a wooden skewer inserted in the center comes out clean. Set the cake on a wire rack to cool in the pan for 20 minutes. If serving the cake plain, turn it out of the pan to cool completely. If finishing it with icing, turn the warm cake out of the pan onto a baking sheet, and proceed with the icing.

To ice the cake, spread Sugar Icing generously onto the surface, piling it high and swirling it around the top and sides. Set in the turned-off warm oven and let sit for at least 3 hours, or until the cake is cool and the icing has hardened. The icing will crumble when the cake is sliced.

Directions for Sugar Icing

In the bowl of an electric mixer, start beating the egg whites on low speed, gradually adding 2 tablespoons of the sugar. After about 3 minutes, or when they just begin to form soft peaks, increase the speed to high and continue adding the sugar, 2 tablespoons at a time, beating until all the sugar is incorporated and the egg whites form soft peaks.

Add the rose water, and continue beating to form stiff peaks. Use immediately to ice the cake.

Research plus images & much more are available from the Mount Vernon website, MountVernon.org. 

Garden to Table - One of Geo Washington's (1732-1799) Favorite Wines - Madeira

One of George Washington's Favorite Wines - Madeira

A fortified wine produced on the Portuguese island of Madeira in the eastern Atlantic, madeira in the 18C was common in Britain & particularly popular in the American colonies. George Washington had an affinity for this particular imported wine.

The first order for Madeira in George Washington's correspondence dates to the spring of 1759, when he asked his London agent, Robert Cary & Company to "Order from the best House in Madeira a Pipe of the best old Wine, & let it be Securd from Pilferers."1 A pipe held approximately 126 gallons of wine.2 About a year later, Washington transported a pipe of wine to Mount Vernon from Alexandria, "wch. Captn. McKee brought from Madeira," along with "a chest of Lemons & some other trifles."3

Three years later, in the spring of 1763, Washington notified Cary & Company that he would be writing directly to the island firm of John & James Searles for a pipe of Madeira wine, & that they, in turn, would be contacting Cary for payment.4 In his letter to the Searles, Washington specifically asked for "a rich oily Wine," & asked that, "if the present vintage shoud not be good, to have it of the last, or in short of any other which you can recommend."5

Washington's orders for Madeira continued throughout his lifetime. He purchased a second pipe from John Searles in 1764, even though he admitted that he still had not yet tapped into the first one. Two years later, Washington switched suppliers & requested similar or larger quantities from the firm of Scott, Pringle, Cheape & Company. By 1768, Washington had not gotten around to drinking the 1766 order, but still asked that an additional 150 gallons be sent.6 In the last orders prior to the American Revolution, Washington sent flour from Mount Vernon directly to Madeira instead of having his English agent pay the island firms & received wine & other products from the islands in exchange.7

Significant amounts of Madeira continued to be purchased for the Washington household both after the war & during the presidency. Two pipes of Madeira were received for the presidential household in Philadelphia in August of 1793 & paid for in January of the following year. Another two pipes of the same wine arrived in May of 1794 & an equal amount again in July & November of the same year.8

When Washington made a trip to tour western lands in the fall of 1784, he carried along in his "equipage Trunk & the Canteens" three types of alcoholic beverages, two of which were Portuguese wines-Madeira & port.9 During the last year of Washington's life, an English visitor at Mount Vernon recorded that both port & Madeira were served during the fruit & nut course at dinner. A Polish nobleman noted that when there were houseguests at Mount Vernon, Washington "loves to chat after dinner with a glass of Madeira in his hand."10 Washington's step-granddaughter Nelly later recalled, "After dinner" Washington "drank 3 glasses of madeira."11

Mary V. Thompson, Research Historian, George Washington's Mount Vernon

Notes:

1. George Washington, "Invoice to Robert Cary & Company, 1 May 1759" The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, Vol. 6, ed. W.W. Abbott (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1988), 318.

2. For the measurement of a pipe of wine, see Marion Nicholl Rawson, "Old Weights and Measures," Antiques (January 1938), 18.

3. "George Washington, 17 May 1760" The Diaries of George Washington, Vol. 1 ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 280.

4. "George Washington to Robert Cary & Company, 26 April 1763" The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, Vol. 7, eds. W.W. Abbott and Dorothy Twohig (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990), 204.

5. "George Washington to John and James Searle, 30 April 1763" The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, Vol. 7, 208.

6. "George Washington to Scott, Pringle, Cheap, & Company, 23 February 1768" The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, Vol. 8, 68-9.

7. "George Washington to Thomas Newton, Jr., 10 July 1773" The Writings of George Washington, Vol. 3 ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1931), 143.

8. "Tobias Lear & Bartholomew Dandridge, 18 January 1794, Washington's Household Account Book, 1793-1797," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 30, Nos. 2 and 3 (1906): 159-186, 309-331; Ibid., 27 May 1794, 24 July 1794, 4 November 1794: 182, 312, 323.

9. "22 September 1784," The Diaries of George Washington, Vol. 4, 32.

10. Joshua Brookes, "A Dinner at Mount Vernon: From the Unpublished Journal of Joshua Brookes." ed. R.W.G. Vail, The New-York Historical Society Quarterly 31, No. 2 (April 1947): 76; Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Under Their Vine and Fig Tree; Travels Through America in 1797-1799, 1805, ed. Metchie J.E. Budka (Elizabeth, New Jersey: Grassman Publishing Company, 1965), 103.

11. "Nelly Custis Lewis to Elizabeth Bordley Gibson, 23 February 1823" (typescript, A-647, Mount vernon Ladies' Association).

Research plus images & much more are available from the Mount Vernon website, MountVernon.org. 

Friday, November 27, 2020

Garden to Table - Geo Washington (1732-1799) & Champagne

George Washington & Champagne

In eighteenth century America, wines from France were less commonly available than those from Spain and Portugal, primarily because of frequent political conflicts between France and England. Several types of French wines did make their way to America for those who could afford the higher prices, including champagne, which was a product of vineyards in northeastern France. During this period, the pale red beverage was typically served in tall champagne flutes, between dinner and dessert, or at evening parties.1

Like other men of his social class, George Washington had the money and connections to acquire champagne for his table. He may have first become acquainted with champagne in the palace in Williamsburg, where the royal governor, Lord Botetourt is known to have had three bottles stored "In the Vault" at the time of his death in 1770.2 In 1793, as president, Washington purchased 485 bottles of champagne and burgundy, which cost him $355.67. Six bottles were "got as a sample" in May of 1794 and another twelve found their way to the executive mansion in November of the same year. Judging from these last two purchases, champagne at this time cost Washington about $1.00 per bottle.3

After the Revolution, Robert Hunter, Jr., a guest at Mount Vernon, recorded that "a very elegant supper" was served around nine at night. The dinner’s special guest was Washington’s old friend, Richard Henry Lee, who was the president of Congress and from whom Washington was "anxious to hear the news of Congress." Hunter noted that "The General with a few glasses of champagne got quite merry, and being with his intimate friends laughed and talked a good deal." Hunter also recognized how rare this was, commenting that "Before strangers, he [Washington] is generally very reserved and seldom says a word. I was fortunate in being in his company with his particular acquaintances. I'm told that during the war he was never seen to smile…."4

In 1791, Scottish artist Archibald Robertson visited the presidential mansion in Philadelphia in order to deliver a gift to George Washington from the Earl of Buchan--an oak box, "elegantly mounted with silver." The box was made from the "celebrated oak tree that sheltered the WASHINGTON of Scotland, the brave and patriotic Sir William Wallace, after his defeat at the battle of Falkirk, in the beginning of the fourteenth century, by Edward the 1st." Robertson was asked to stay for dinner.

The custom of ladies withdrawing to another room after dinner was common practice in the eighteenth century. Based on descriptions by Washington’s dinner guests, this practice was followed both at Mount Vernon and in the presidential household. During this particular meal, however, the custom seems to have been reversed. Robertson recorded that dinner ended with several glasses of "sparkling champagne," "over which people lingered for about 45 minutes." Afterwards George Washington and Tobias Lear rose from the table and went to another room, "leaving the ladies in high glee," which Robertson attributed to Lord Buchan and the "Wallace box," but may have been due more to both the unaccustomed role change and the effects of the sparkling wine.5

Mary V. Thompson, Research Historian, Mount Vernon Estate

Notes:

1. Louise Conway Belden, The Festive Tradition: Table Decoration and Desserts in America, 1650-1900 (New York & London:  W.W. Norton & Company, 1983), 17, 233 & 235, 250-251.

2. Graham Hood, The Governor's Palace in Williamsburg: A Cultural Study (Williamsburg, VA, 1991), 311.

3. Philadelphia Household Account Book, "17 July 1793," "21 May1794," "6 November 1794," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 30, Nos. 1-4, 1906.

4. Robert Hunter, Jr., Quebec to Carolina in 1785-1786, Being the Travel Diary and Observations of Robert Hunter, Jr., a Young Merchant of London (San Marino: Huntington Library, 1943): 5.

5. William Spohn Baker, Washington After the Revolution, 1785-1799 (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1898), 231-232, 232n.

Research plus  images & much more are available from the Mount Vernon website, MountVernon.org. 

Thursday, November 26, 2020

Garden to Table at Mt Vernon - Geo Washington (1732-1799) Toasted & Toasting

Martha Washington (1731-1802)

While George Washington oversaw most aspects of managing Mount Vernon's  pleasure gardens & grounds, Martha Washington oversaw the Kitchen Garden (The Lower Garden), allowing her to keep fruits and vegetables on the table year round.

The Kitchen Garden at Mount Vernon

“…impress it on the gardener to have every thing in his garden that will be nece]ssary in the House keeping way — as vegetable is the best part of our living in the country.” – Martha Washington, 1792

Inside the Kitchen at Mount Vernon

Outside The Kitchen at Mount Vernon

In the matter of eating & drinking George Washington was temperate. For breakfast he ordinarily had tea & Indian cakes with butter & perhaps honey, of which he was very fond. His supper was equally light, consisting of perhaps tea & toast, with wine, & he usually retired at nine o'clock. Dinner was the main meal of the day at Mount Vernon, & usually was served at two o'clock. One such meal is thus described by a guest:  "He thanked us, desired us to be seated, & to excuse him a few moments.... The President came & desired us to walk in to dinner & directed  us where to sit, (no grace was said).... The dinner was very good, a small roasted pigg, boiled leg of lamb, roasted fowls, beef, peas, lettice, cucumbers, artichokes, etc., puddings, tarts, etc. etc."   The General ordinarily confined himself to a few courses & if offered anything very rich, he would protest, "That is too good for me." He often drank beer with the meal, with one or two glasses of wine & perhaps as many more afterward, often eating nuts, another delicacy with him, as he sipped the wine.

Toasting

In the spring of 1783, citizens gathered in towns and cities across America to celebrate the signing of the Preliminary Articles of Peace ending the American Revolution. In Newport, Rhode Island, the "day was ushered in by ringing of bells and firing of cannon." A procession of soldiers and civilians in Charleston, South Carolina was accompanied by "five Field Pieces…, a Band of Music, Colours, Drums, and Fifes." The inhabitants of Marblehead, Massachusetts assembled at the "town-house" where an ox was “provided and cooked” and a large “beacon” was “surrounded with combustibles” and “converted to a bonfire."1

While Americans chose to commemorate peace and victory in a variety of different ways, all of these celebrations had one thing in common. Everywhere people came together to mark the occasion, they passed around glasses and drank toasts. In one town, "a large vessel was filled with liquor, and duly replenished throughout the day." In another, some "five hundred gentleman and ladies" partook of a "cold collation."2

In many cases, revelers drank a total of thirteen toasts (one for each state in the new Union), and reporters carefully recorded what each toaster had said to publish in the newspapers. Some speakers paid tribute to political leaders: to "The Continental Congress" or "Our European allies." Others were more practical, proclaiming that "Commerce and Agriculture flourish in America" and that "our trade and navigation extend." Many remarked on the lasting significance of the occasion, hoping that the "citizens of the United State eternally cherish those rights, for which they fought, bled, and conquered," or that the "peace prove glorious to America and last forever." One particularly optimistic toaster in South Carolina wished that "the Fair Sex [might] prove kind and propitious to the brave and deserving."3

But wherever Americans tipped their glasses in 1783, they almost always reserved one special toast for George Washington. In Newport revelers drank to "General Washington and the American Army and Navy;" in Bucks County, Pennsylvania it was "General Washington, and the officers of the army." In Charleston, merrymakers saluted "General Washington, the Western Star" – may he be "enabled to retire with Satisfaction from the Field of Victory and Glory." A poet in Boston put his toast to verse, asking his readers, whenever they gathered to "drink around each others health," to:

Pray don’t forget the soldiers bold

With WASHINGTON the brave…

Health to his honor I’d freely drink,

Had I a glass of wine;

And whosoever with me shall think,

May mix their toast with mine.4

Alcohol and drinking were common features of everyday life for ordinary Americans in the eighteenth century. While special occasions like the signing of the Treaty of Peace called for unusually liberal bouts of toasting, most Americans imbibed on a daily basis. Average colonists drank as much as four gallons of hard liquor every year, as well as considerable quantities of wine (for those who could afford), beer, or hard cider.5 Taverns, inns, and alehouses were among the first businesses opened by European immigrants in colonial Philadelphia, and the spread of drinking establishments kept pace with the rapid blossoming of the population during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In 1686 there were six public houses in Philadelphia; by 1756, that number had grown to 101.6

General Washington was not against enjoying a drink himself, serving libations to his frequent guests, or even supplying alcohol for political purposes. During the political campaign leading up to his 1758 election to the Virginia House of Burgesses, Washington famously lubricated a gathering of potential supporters by providing “a hogshead and a barrel of punch, thirty-five gallons of wine, forty-three gallons of strong beer, cider, and dinner” at his own expense.7

Washington’s friends, associates, and other correspondents, meanwhile, frequently expressed their own gratitude, appreciation, and good will regarding drinking and toasting. In May 1756, early in Washington’s political career, childhood friend William Fairfax informed him that "Your Health & Success was toasted at almost all Tables at W[illia]msburg."8 Upon returning to his post in Paris after serving with Washington during the Revolution, French soldier Charles-Louis de Montesquieu promised that, "I shall often with my Officers, drink to your Excellency’s health—All who have been under your orders in America, would get drunk with pleasure to this toast."9

The pervasiveness of toasting to Washington, particularly at the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, speaks to the universality and stature of the General in early American culture. In a new nation that could only be generously labelled a single, unified "nation," there were few truly national figures – individuals that ordinary Americans from New Hampshire to Georgia could all recognize. In this regard, no figure stood above George Washington. When average citizens gathered to share in toasts in 1783, not only did they almost always single out George Washington for a special drink, but usually they singled out only Washington. In this sense, the name of Washington became a powerful cultural symbol that helped unite a collection of disparate states into one coherent Union.

By Brett Palfreyman, Binghamton University

Notes:

1. The Independent Gazette (Philadelphia), May 17, 1783; South Carolina Weekly Gazette (Charleston), Jul. 5, 1783; The Massachusetts Spy (Boston), May, 8, 1783... Sorry, notes cut off here.

Research plus images & much more are available from the Mount Vernon website, MountVernon.org. 

Wednesday, November 25, 2020

Garden to Table - Geo Washington (1732-1799) & Elderberry Wines

1790s  Christian Gullager 1759-1826 George Washington. Massachusetts Historical Society

Some of George Washington's (1732-1799) favorite foods were Mashed Sweet Potatoes, String Beans, Nuts, Melons, Fish, and griddle-fried cornmeal Hoe Cakes.  In his 1791 “The Hasty Pudding,” American poet Joel Barlow(1754-1812) called the hoe cake “fair Virginia’s pride.” Washington's favorite desserts were Trifle, Martha Washington’s Whisky Cake, and Cherry Pie.  He was also fond of Porter, a dark ale, & Madera, and wine was usually present at the Mount Vernon table. But I think George Washington's favorite wine was Elderberry Wine.

Interest in the potential of the American colonies producing a great new wine was growing in London by the middle of the 18C.  Beginning in 1758, the Society of Arts had been offering premiums for wines produced in the colonies. (see: Robert Dossie, Memoirs of Agriculture, and other Œconomical Arts, i (London, 1768), 239–41.)  George Washington hoped that native grapes growing vigorously across the British American colonies could be made into a notable native American wine: "The spontaneous growth of the Vine in all parts of this Country; the different qualities of them and periods for maturation, led me to conclude that by a happy choice of the species I might succeed better than those who had attempted the foreign vine," 

Washington wrote to the French Minister of State, Chre'tien Guillaume de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, on July 9, 1783.  But dreams of Independence, a Revolution, & forming a new government intervened.. "This consideration led me to try the wild grape of the Country; and to fix upon the species which I have already described, and which in the Eight years I have been absent from my estate has been little attended to. Had I remained at home, I should 'ere this, have perfected the experiment which was all I had in view,"  

Dreams of wine-making in the New World of North America began long before the time of Washington. The colonists of Jamestown started crushing New World "fox grapes" almost from the moment they landed in 1607.
CAUTION: In all species of elderberries, the stems, leaves, bark and especially the roots are toxic; the latter are known to have caused death to rooting animals such as swine. All immature (green) berries are considered toxic, and one American species, the American Red, or Scarlet, Elder (S. pubens) produces a mature toxic berry. While the berries of many species induce stomach upset if eaten raw or in excess, the American Red Elder is excessively toxic and should be avoided. (Its mature berries are very small — about 1/5 inch in diameter — obviously red and its juice yellowish.) The identified toxin is a cyanogenic glycoside (releases cyanide) called sambunigrin.

Old-Time Recipes for Home Made Wines Cordials & Liqueurs (1909) by Helen S. Wright

ELDER WINE
Take five pounds of Malaga raisins, rub them and shred them small; then take one gallon of water, boil it an hour, and let it stand till it is but blood-warm; then put it in an earthen crock or tub, with your raisins. Let them steep ten days, stirring them once or twice a day; then pass the liquor through a hair sieve, and have in readiness one pint of the juice of elderberries drawn off as you do for jelly of currants; then mix it cold with the liquor, stir it well together, put it into a vessel, and let it stand in a warm place. When it has done working, stop it close. Bottle it about Candlemas. (Candlemas in early February,  is another name for the feast of the Presentation of the Lord. Forty days after His birth, Mary and Joseph brought Jesus to the temple for the rites of purification and dedication as prescribed by the Torah.) 

ELDERBERRY WINE
Nine quarts elderberry juice, nine quarts water, eleven and one-half pounds white sugar, two ounces red tartar. These are put into a cask, a little yeast added, and the whole is fermented. When undergoing fermentation, one ounce ginger root, one ounce allspice, one-quarter ounce cloves are put into a bag of clean cotton cloth, and suspended in the cask. They will give a pleasant flavor to the wine, which will become clear in about two months, and may be drawn off and bottled. Add some brandy to this wine, but if the fermentation is properly conducted, this is not necessary.

ELDER WINE, NO. 2
Take spring-water, and let it boil half an hour; then measure two and one-half gallons, and let it stand to cool. Then have in readiness ten pounds of raisins of the sun well picked and rubbed in a cloth, and hack them so as to cut them, but not too small; then put them in, the water being cold, and let them stand nine days, stirring them two or three times a day. Then have ready three pints of the juice of elderberries full ripe, which must be infused in boiling water, or baked three hours; then strain out the raisins, and when the elder liquor is cold, mix that with it, but it is best to boil up the juice to a syrup, one-half pound of sugar to every pint of juice. Boil and skim it, and when cold mix it with your raisin liquor, and two or three spoonfuls of good ale yeast. Stir it well together; then put it into a vessel fit for it, let it stand in a warm place to work, and in your cellar five or six months.

ELDER WINE, NO. 3
The quantity of fruit required is one gallon of ripe elderberries, and one quart of damsons or sloes, for every two gallons of wine to be produced. Boil them in water till the damsons burst, frequently breaking them with a flat stick; then strain and return the liquor to the copper. The quantity of liquor required for nine gallons of wine will be ten gallons; therefore if the first liquor proves short of this, add water to the pulp, rub it about and strain to the rest. Boil two hours with twenty-three pounds of coarse moist sugar; three-quarters of a pound of ginger bruised, one-half a pound of allspice, and one ounce of cinnamon, loosely tied in a muslin bag, and two or three ounces of hops. When quite cool work on the foregoing plan, tun in two days, drop in the spice, and suspend the bag by a string not long enough to let it touch the bottom of the cask; fill it up for a fortnight, then paste over stiff brown paper. It will be fit to tap in two months; will keep for years, but does not improve by age like many other wines. It is never better than in the first year of its age.

ELDER WINE (FLAVORED WITH HOPS)
The berries, which must be thoroughly ripe, are to be stripped from the stalk, and squeezed to a pulp. Stir and squeeze this pulp every day for four days; then separate the juice from the pulp by passing through a cane sieve or basket. To every gallon of juice, add one-half gallon of cold water. Boil four and one-half gallons with three ounces of hops for one-half hour; then strain it and boil again, with one and one-half pounds of sugar to the gallon, for about ten minutes, skimming all the time; pour it into a cooler, and, while luke-warm, put a piece of bread with a little balm on it to set it working. Put it into a cask as soon as cold; when it has done working, cork it down, and leave it six months before it is tapped. It is then drinkable, but improves with age exceedingly.

ELDER WINE -  CHRISTMAS
Take five pounds of Malaga or Lipara raisins, rub them clean, and shred them small. Then take five quarts of water, boil it an hour, and when it is near cold put it in a tub with the raisins; let them steep ten days, and stir them once or twice a day. Then strain it through a hair sieve, and by infusion draw one pint of elder-juice, and one-quarter of a pint of damson juice. Make the juice into a thin syrup, a pound of sugar to a pint of juice, and not boil it much, but just enough to keep. When you have strained out the raisin liquor, put that and the syrup into a vessel fit for it, and one-half a pound of sugar. Stop the bung with a cork till it gathers to a head, then open it, and let it stand till it has done working; then put the cork in again, and stop it very close, and let it stand in a warm place two or three months, and then bottle it. Make the elder and damson juice into syrup in its season, and keep it in a cool cellar till you have convenience to make the wine.

ELDER-FLOWER WATER
Take two large handfuls of dried elder-flowers, and ten gallons of spring-water; boil the water, and pour it scalding hot upon the flowers. The next day put to every gallon of water five pounds of Malaga raisins, the stalks being first picked off, but not washed; chop them grossly with a chopping-knife, then put them into your boiled water, and stir the water, raisins, and flowers well together, and so do twice a day for twelve days. Then press out the juice clear, as long as you can get any liquor out. Then put it in your barrel fit for it, and stop it up two or three days till it works, and in a few days stop it up close, and let it stand two or three months, till it is clear; then bottle it.

CYPRESS WINE - IMITATION 
To five gallons of water put five quarts of the juice of white elderberries, pressed gently through a sieve without bruising the seeds. Add to every gallon of liquor one and one-half pounds of sugar, and to the whole quantity one ounce of sliced ginger, and one-half ounce of cloves. Boil this nearly an hour, taking off the scum as it rises, and pour in an open tub to cool. Work it with ale yeast spread upon a toast of bread for three days. Then turn it into a vessel that will just hold it, adding about three-quarters pound bruised raisins, to lie in the liquor till drawn off, which should not be done till the wine is fine.

EBULUM
To one hogshead of strong ale take a heaped bushel of elderberries, and one-half pound of juniper-berries beaten. Put in all the berries when you put in the hops, and let them boil together till the berries break in pieces, then work it up as you do ale. When it has done working add to it one-half pound of ginger, one-half ounce of cloves, one-half ounce of mace, one ounce of nutmegs, one ounce of cinnamon, grossly beaten, one-half pound of citron, one-half pound of eringo root, and likewise of candied orange-peel. Let the sweetmeats be cut in pieces very thin, and put with the spice into a bag, and hang it in the vessel when you stop it up. So let it stand till it is fine, then bottle it up, and drink it with lumps of double refined sugar in the glass.

Research plus images & much more are available from Geo Washington's (1732-1799) home Mount Vernon website, MountVernon.org. 

Old-Time Recipes for Home Made Wines is a cookbook for those who want to make their own wines & liqueurs from available ingredients, including fruits, flowers, vegetables, & shrubs from local gardens, farms, & orchards. It includes ingredients & instructions for making & fermenting spirits, from wine & ale to sherry, brandy, cordials, & even beer. 

Colonial Era Cookbooks

1615, New Booke of Cookerie, John Murrell (London) 
1798, American Cookery, Amelia Simmons (Hartford, CT)
1803, Frugal Housewife, Susannah Carter (New York, NY)
1807, A New System of Domestic Cookery, Maria Eliza Rundell (Boston, MA)
1808, New England Cookery, Lucy Emerson (Montpelier, VT)

Helpful Secondary Sources

America's Founding Food: The Story of New England Cooking/Keith Stavely and Kathleen Fitzgerald Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Colonial Kitchens, Their Furnishings, and Their Gardens/Frances Phipps Hawthorn; 1972
Early American Beverages/John Hull Brown   Rutland, Vt., C. E. Tuttle Co 1996 
Early American Herb Recipes/Alice Cooke Brown  ABC-CLIO  Westport, United States
Food in Colonial and Federal America/Sandra L. Oliver
Home Life in Colonial Days/Alice Morse Earle (Chapter VII: Meat and Drink) New York : Macmillan Co., ©1926.
A Revolution in Eating: How the Quest for Food Shaped America/James E. McWilliams New York : Columbia University Press, 2005.