Monday, November 11, 2019

Plants in Early American Gardens - Black Cohosh

Black Cohosh; Snakeroot (Actaea racemosa)

Black cohosh, or snakeroot, has been grown in American gardens since the late 18th century. Thomas Lamboll sent three kinds of snakeroot to Philadelphia nurseryman and plant explorer William Bartram during the late 1700s, and one is believed to be this species. Thomas Jefferson included “Black snake-root” in a list of native medicinal plants in his only published book, Notes on the State of Virginia (1781). Black cohosh is a long-lived perennial that will slowly increase in size for many years and not require dividing. The lacy foliage forms an attractive mound in the flower border or woodland garden.

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Sunday, November 10, 2019

Joseph Prentis (1754-1809) His Garden Book 1784-1788 in Williamsburg, Virginia

Joseph Prentis (1754-1809) was a Virginia politician who loved to garden. He represented Williamsburg in the Virginia House of Delegates, and served as that body's Speaker from 1786 until 1788.

Garden Book 1784-1788

Garden Book - March 1784

Sowed Earth Pease in the square next chimney, the 17th.

19. Sowed Rape seed in same square.

Glory of England sowed same Day in square next street oposite.

19. Sowed Carrots in this square.

19. Transplanted Rose Bushes an dRaspbarries

19. Sowed Lettuce seed.

19. Planted square; Beans

29. Sowed Parsley

23d Mar. Sowed Carrott seed Rhadish, Cresses.

April 1st

Sowed Marrow fats

Planted Ovio [?] Planted Flowering peas, sowed Endive, set out Garlick & Onions.


April 2d sowed Colliflower, Savoy Cabbage. Celery Seed.

August 1st Transplanted three rows of Colliflower Brocoli from seed saved this psring.

Transplanted solid Celery.

3.d August.
Sowed two Rows of six week Peas.
Two Rows of Dwarf marrow fats.

Sowed Lettuce seed, on border on left Hand under small Paling in the large Garden.

7th Au.
Sowed four Rows Peas opposite to those sown 3.d

Sowed Lettuce under North Paling. & Garden.

28 Sowed Lettuce on small Border under Yard Pales

28 Planted out Strawberrys in both Gardens.

January 1787
Sowed Peas on the Border of the north Paling on the 17th day of Jany (all rotted)

19th Planted three tows of large Hotspur Beans in Est Garden

Sowed Cabbage seed on north Border, in E. Garden

Feby 19 Sowed Lettuce & Cabbage from E. shore on Border of White Pales in E. Garden

23d Sowed Peas on the north Border, in the place where they were put the 17th Jany, these are of the six Week

February 1788

13th Sowed Peas on the Border of the E. Garden under the north paling in double rows.

15 Planted Mazagan Beans 7 first Rows in first square in E. Garden.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Plants in Early American Gardens - American Spikenard

American Spikenard (Aralia racemosa)

With a broad native range from New Brunswick south to North Carolina and west to Arizona, Utah, and northern Mexico, the American Spikenard is an easily grown perennial that adapts to a variety of conditions. A member of the Ginseng family, the thick roots are spicy and aromatic and were once used to flavor teas and root beer. Aralia racemosa was included for sale in Bartram’s Catalogue of American Trees, Shrubs, and Herbacious Plants (1783), with the growing requirement listed as “Richest deep moist Soil.”

For more information & the possible availability for purchase

Friday, November 8, 2019

Joseph Prentis (1754-1809) Directions for Gardening in Williamsburg, Virginia

Joseph Prentis (1754-1809) was a Virginia politician who loved to garden. He represented Williamsburg in the Virginia House of Delegates, and served as that body's Speaker from 1786 until 1788.

Directions about Gardening

The last week in September or the first in October, take up your Colliflowers, with as much Earth to the Root as you conveniently can.
Dig a trench eighteen Inches Wide and of a sufficient depth, put in Rotten Dung; then lay your Plants with their Heads to the Sun, cover them with mould up their Leaves, add to this a Coat of Saw Dust.
When apprehensive of Frost, cover them with Straw.

Make a general Dressing of artichokes the first or about the Middle of March; by levelling the Earth from the Plants, but observe to let two or three of the strongest shoots remain upon every Root, and flip off the others; In doing this open the Earth deep enough to admit you to flip the Branches from the places where they arise, and closing and pressing the Earth close to the stock. The flips if wanted may be set out at this Time, and should be placed in an open situation and in a rich soil; and ought to be watered, to settle the Earth about the Plants. These flips will yield the following Autumn. These flips will also answer if put out in April. If you are desirous to have large artichokes, you must in Order to encourage the main Head, cut off, all the suckers or small Heads that are produced from the sides of the stems.
Whenever the artichoke is taken off the stem which supported it ought also to be broken down close to the Earth, as they injure the growth of the Plant it suffered to remain.
About the first of November is the time to cut down the Leaves off the artichoke and earth up the Plants to secure them from severe Frosts. If at the time of Dressing your artichokes any of the strong Plants show Fruit, and you are desirous to save the fruit you must tie up the Leaves close, and then lay the Earth up over the Roots and close about the Leaves which will preserve the Fruit and bring it to perfection.
If not earthed up in Novr it may be done in Decr or even in Jany. If the Frost will not admit of earthing them they may be well covered with straw. Before they are either earthed or covered with straw, all the dead Leaves must be first well taken away.
Jerusalem artichokes must be planted in Rows two feet asunder and about fifteen Inches distance in the Rows.

The first of February plant your Beans, if of the large kind let them be in rows of a Yard assunder and about six Inches distant in the Row.
They may be put in about the first or middle of January if a favourable season offers. Beans of any kind may also be planted about the first of March and they will succeed very well, or even between the first of April and the middle of May.
The Small Magazan Bean is to be preferred to any other kind that I have seen.

Brocoli Seed both of the purple and white kinds may be sown in May and it will be adviseable to sow a little of this seed at two different times in May, some time between the first and fifteenth, and between the fifteenth and thirtieth.
The Plants that are raised from the first sowing if the winter is mild will afford Heads before Christmas, at least will lead very early in the spring. The second sowing is chiefly for spring use, and will produce fine Heads in February and March and after the Heads are gone will yield abundance of fine sprouts.
The seed ought to be sown on a Border that is not fully exposed to the sun. In June take out from the Beds the Plants, and put them in other Beds three or four Inches apart every way water them and repeat it occasionally. Let them remain here about a Month and then plant them out where you wish them to stand for use.
The second week in June you may sow some more feed, and these Plants will produce Heads in February and March. In July put out your full crop of Brocoli, in Rows allowing three feet between the Rows and two feed from each other in a rich soil, and water them if the season is dry till they appear to have taken Root.

Some time in March about 12th sow your Carrots, they grow best in a light soil, and in an open Exposure, the Ground ought to be spaded very deep, and the clods well broken, this seed ought to be thinly sown and on a dry, calm Day. The seed may also be sown in March, or April, and will answer very well; this is the best time. In May your Carrots should be properly encouraged by keeping them clear from weeds and thinning them that they may grow at Top, and swell at Bottom. And in thinning they must be left at least six Inches every way. If the Plants are used at Table they may now be thinned only about four Inches every way. In July if you incline you may sow some carrot seed, which will afford you good young Carrots in the autumn. In August you may also sow some, which will supply the Table in the Spring.
The last of Novr or first of Decr take up your Carrots, in a dry Mild Day and cut off the Tops, clean them from the Earth and carry them to some dry place, then lay a Bed of dry sand on th floor about two or three Inches thick, place the roots upon the sand close together laying their Heads outwards, Cover the Roots with sand, two Inches, and then lay on more Roots, and then more sand. After this cover them with straw.
During the growth of your Parsnips and Carrots it will be proper to spade or loosed the Earth three or four times about their roots, which make them considerably larger.

These seed may be sown in a Bed of rich Light soil in a warm situation in the natural Ground in the middle of February and planted out about the middle of April in a rich spot, at the distance of two feet or thirty Inches every way, water them if the season is dry. As soon as the flower appears, it should be screened from the sun and wet, which alters its colour, and to shelter it let three or four of the largest Leaves be taken off to cover the flower.
In dry weather they ought to be often watered. If the Plants were not transplanted in April it may be done in May. In May you may sow the seed, and the Plants from this seed, will produce their flowers in abundance in October, and November. The seed ought not to be sown till the last of May and the Bed must be shaded, and frequently watered if dry.
The Plants that were sown in May, about the last of June should be pricked out into another Bed in an open situation at about three Inches apart, and give them a little water to settle the Earth, about their Roots. It will be proper to shade them from the sun if a hot season till they have taken root. They are to remain in this Bed for about a Month and then be planted out where they are to stand, and to be watered till they have taken root, and they will produce in October and November.
For other observations on Colliflowers see forward.

The last of February or first of March prune your Currants by cutting away all ill growing Branches, and leave the Branches about seven or eight Inches apart. They may be planted at this Time, and ought to be seven or eight feet apart. Currants are best raised by Cuttings for this purpose take such of the shoots as are strong, and let them be from twelve to fifteen Inches long, plant them in Rows not less than twelve inches apart and put each cutting about half way into the Ground.
At this Time it will be also proper to loosed the Earth around the roots.
About the last of October you may prune your Currants, and dig the Earth about them. In these Trees, many young shoots are produced every summer some of which should be cut away, but care taken to leave the strongest to supply the places of the old Branches, some of which should be cut away every Year to make room for the young Bushes.
This is also a very proper season to propagate which is best done by cuttings, in the mode before mentioned.
They may also be raised by Cuttings in December.

About the middle of March sow Celery for the principal Crop. The seed should be put in a warm spot of rich Earth, cover it but very lightly, as soon as the Plants are large enough draw out the largest and transplant them in a Bed three Inches apart and shade them till they have taken root.
They are to remain her about a month or five weeks, and then to be placed in their Trenches, and which ought to be done in June, in the following manner. Dig each Trench, seven or eight Inches of very rotten Dung in the Bottom of each Trench, when this is done, let the Bottom be neatly dug, burying the Dung equally about four Inches deep, then put in your Plants, in one row in the middle of the trench at the distance of five Inches between each plant; if the season is not very favourable they must be watered frequently, about a month or five weeks they require to be earthed up, and which ought to be done in dry days, the earth must be finely broken and much care be taken, that it is placed gently and equally on both sides and not drawn up so high, as to cover the Bud, this must be repeated every fortnight or thereabouts till the celery is fit for use. For a full Crop of Celery for the winter the same preparation must be made, chuse the strongest Plants, and trim the ends of their roots, and cut two or three Inches off the Tops of their Leaves and plant them in July. Before the Earth is drawn to the Celery it of great service to have it well stirred three or four Times, and by no means to draw it to your Celery when wet. Celery may also be transplanted in August.
The celery ought to be earthed up within four or five Inches of the Tops, and if the Tops are then covered from the severe Frosts it will still be of great service.

Chamomile Flowers
Plant flips of Chamomile in a rich Bed at the distance of nine or ten Inches, when they bear the flowers ought to be gathered and fried for use.

Dressing Borders
In February let your Beds and Borders be thoroughly cleaned from weeds, and the surface of your flower Borders be lightly and carefully loosened with a hoe in a dry day, and neatly raked, which gives a liveliness to the surface, in pleasing to the Eye, and well worth the Labour.

Dung your Grounds
Such of the Garden as may be vacant should be well manured in October and also well spaded that it may have the advantage of fallow from the sun, snow, and air of the winter season.
In March loosen the surface of the Borders which were planted with flowers of any sort in the Fall, or Autumn, let this be done in a dry day with a small Hoe, stirring the Earth very carefully between the Plants, taking care of the shoots from the Bulbous Roots which are now appearg thro’ the surface, then let them be neatly raked and clear away all Dead Leaves, which appear about the Plants. By loosening the surface of the Borders the first growth of seed weeds is prevented, and it greatly promotes the grown of the Flowers.
In December use every oppy of laying Dung on such parts of the Garden as may want it.

Use the same method in cultivating this Fruit as is recommended for Currants.

Gathering Seeds
Gather seeds of all sorts as they ripen, let this be done in dry weather and as soon as they are cut spread them in some dry place, where the air can freely come, they ought to be turned frequently and after they are perfectly dry may be beaten out; and well cleaned from the Rubbish and Husks.

About the middle or last of February you may prepare your Ground for Onions, let it be well manured and sow them thin, and as equally as possible. From this Time till the first of April they will succeed very will if sown.
In May the Onions should be well cleared of weeds and the Plants thinned leaving them three or four Inches asunder. They may be transplanted and when growing it is of great service to loosed the Earth about them.
Onions may also be sown about the Middle of July, or in August for the Winter, when they come up, they must be well attended to, or the weeds will get the better of the Onions and destroy the whole Crop. When your forwardest Crop is fot to take up in the Fall and which is discovered by their Leaves beginning to wither, they must be managed in the following manner.
They must be taken up in dry weather, and leave to each Onion four or five Inches of the Leaves they must then be placed in a dry place to harden exposed to the sun, for a fortnight, and frequently turned. They ought to be afterwards placed in a dry and airy Room, but let them be first well cleaned from the Earth, and their outer skins, and spread, on the floor, the windows of this appartment ought to be kept open in fair weather for about a wek, and those that decay should not be suffered to remain with the others.
About the 20th of Septr is a good time to sow your onion seed. Let them be kept very clean from weeds, and transplanted early in the Spring.

Sow some of this seed about the last of January in Drills tolerably thick and cover it about a Quarter of an Inch deep. It may be down from this Time till April, and will thrive very well.

Where new Plantations of this Fruit are desired about the last of June is the proper time to prepare for it. In chusing your Plants let them be taken from such Beds as bear well, and produce the largest fruit. Let the Plants be taken from the last summers Growth very carefully up with the roots. Trip the roots a little and cut off any strings from the Head of the Plant, and let them be put in immediately, into a Bed in a shade situation, and about three or four inches apart, and as soon as planted they must be watered to sell the Earth;
In this situation they must remain till Septr or October, by which time they will be strong and in fine order to transplant where they are to remain and ought to be planted at least twelve Inches asunder. In February they should be well cleaned, and have their spring Dressing. First pull off all the runners and clear the Bed from weeds of every sort, then loosed the Ground between the Plants, and add a little fresh earth, between the rows, and about each plant, which makes them flower strong and produce large fruit. The Beds ought to be kept free from Runners and weeds as they advance, But where new Plantations are wanted it is best to let the runners remain. In dry weather they ought to be frequently watered, especially if they are in Bloom, and if not well supplied with water, you will have but small Fruit, and a thin Crop.
In October or Novr the Beds ought to be well cleaned and any vacancies may at this time be filled with other Roots.

If your Raspberries have remained un pruned till February, they ought now to be pruned, and in doing this, observe to leave three of the strongest last Years shoots, close together on each root to bear fruit, the next summer and all above that number on every root must be cut away. Clear away the dead wood. Each shoot that you leave, should be shortened by taking of about one third of their length. After they are pruned you ought to dig about the root and clear away all straggling roots, and leave none but those that are to support the Branches you expect to bear. In February is a proper time to make new Plantations where there are wanted.
If they are not pruned and cleaned in February it may be done in the month of March, and they will bear transplanting very well, at this Time.
They may also be transplanted in October, or Novr and may be pruned at this Time. In chusing Plants take such as are well provided with roots, for this is very material in this Plant, an dif there be one two or more Buds formed on the roots for the next summers shoots they are to be preferred.
Before they are placed in the Earth, shorten the roots a little and let the shoots be trimmed.

Sow spinach in February if the weather is mild, and it ought to be repeated every fortnight, until the middle or last of April. The first of July get your Ground ready for a winter Crop, and sow it in Drills. If not sown at this time, it may be sown in August (or first of Septr best time), but ought to be placed in a spot that is dry in the winter when the Plants are up and have leaves about an Inch broad, they must be thinned and cleared from weeds, and should be left four or five Inches apart from each other and which must be done some time in Septr as you find the Plant requires it. In gathering it for use take care to take the largest Leaves and leaving the inner ones to grow in their turn.

The same Directions that are recommended in the culture of Carrots will also suit this Plant.

The last of February this must be sown, and ought to be placed in a light spott in an open situation, sow the seed thin and let it be gently raked over. It may be sown in March also.
For your winters Crop the seed should now be sown, at this time the seed sown in the Spring should be carefully thinned, and the Plants set out about six or seven Inches apart.

In the first of January if the weather is open on a warm Exposure, you may sow some Hot Spurr Peas, in Rows three feet and a half distant, at this your Crop of Marrow fats may also be sown but these had better be at the distance of four feet. When they come up draw a little Earth to their stems in a mild day, but take Care that this Earth is pretty dry.
In February sow your principal Crop of Peas. Marrow Fats should be at least three feet and a half asunder. Hot Spur and those of a smaller kind three feet apart. Marrow fat Peas, may also be down in March or any of the smaller sort. They may also be sown in April and will succeed very well. In May as the proper season to sow any kind of Dwarf Peas, and when they come up they ought to be earthed up with tolerable dry soil.
In June you may also sow some Peas, and altho they do not generally succeed very well, yet if the season proves tolerably moist there will be a great chance of reaping a tolerable Crop in Septr at which time they will be a rarity. If the weather be very dry, it will be proper to soak the Peas in Water for a few Hours.
The last of Septr or first of October, sow some Peas, for an early Crop. The earliest Hotspur is the proper sort to be sown at this Time, and a war Border under a wall or fence is the proper situation.
If no Peas were sown in October, it will be proper to sow some the first of November, and those that are sown at this Time have the best chance to succeed. When the weather is open In Decr let a warm spot be got ready for Peas, and sow the early Hotspur, let them be covered an Inch and a half with Earth.

Must be sown critically t a day, or it is said there can be no Depended on them. For the Fall you must sow your seed on the 12th day of April and transplant them into Beds to stop their growth, in July place them where they are intended to grow as they grow they ought to be hilled up otherwise, when they head, the wind will injure them, they grow best in a rich light soil, the best way of managing then here is as follows. Dig Trenches a foot and a half wide quite down to the clay, mix with the Clay with your spade some long Dung into which place your Plants about five feet apart when they are large enough to be transplanted, and as they grow hill them up with the best mould you can get, this method answered the purpose of transplanting for the Clay suppressed their growth, and the warmth of the Dung afforded them head enough to vegetate.
If the Flie is apt to destroy your plants it is a good way when you sow the seed to sow spinach or Rhadish so an not to interfere with the Plants. These Things being more agreeable food to the Insects will frequently save your Plants.
In November when the intense Frosts approach take your Colliflowers up by the roots with as much Mould as you can and place them in a hole dug in the ground, about two feet below the surface well sheltered by straw, near one another, and cut them as you please, they may be kept in this way the greatest part of the winter.

May be sown from February to October, the last crop to be sown about the first of August, and in October transplanted into a rich Border sheltered from the weather. It is a hardy Plant and will stand most of our winters if covered only with Pea Vines, Asparagus Haulm, Matts or straw.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Plants in Early American Gardens - Red Chokeberry

Red Chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia)
 Red Chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia)

This attractive and vigorous North American shrub grows in bogs, swamps, and moist forests from Nova Scotia to Florida and Texas, especially along the coastal areas. During the 18th century, this species was often classified as Sorbus arbutifolia but sometimes thought to be a kind of pear (hence Pyrus arbutifolia). Bernard McMahon considered it a type of Medlar, calling it “Arbutus-leaved Medlar, Mespilus arbutifolia” in the 1806 edition of his American Gardener’s Calendar and Philadelphia nurseryman John Bartram included it among other Aronias in his 1783 Broadside. This very desirable landscape plant grows into a dense clump and has few pests or diseases.

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Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Garden to Table - Fruits, Vegetables, & Herbs in Amelia Simmons 1798 Cookbook

André Bouys (French, 1656 - 1740) Woman in Kitchen

On Fruits, Vegetables, & Herbs 1798 Amelia Simmons Cookbook

ROOTS and VEGETABLES--and the best cook cannot alter the first quality, they must be good, or the cook will be disappointed.

Potatoes, take rank for universal use, profit and early acquirement. The smooth skin, known by the name of How's Potatoe, is the most mealy and richest flavor'd; the yellow rusticoat next best; the red, and red rusticoat are tolerable; and the yellow Spanish have their value--those cultivated from imported feed on sandy or dry loomy lands, are best for table use; though the red or either will produce more in rich, loomy, highly manured garden grounds; new lands and a sand foil, afford the richest flavor'd; and most mealy Potatoe much depends on the ground on which they grow--more on the species of Potatoes planted--and still more from foreign feeds--and each may be known by attention to connoisseurs; for a good potatoe comes up in many branches of cookery, as herein after prescribed.--All potatoes should be dug before the rainy seasons in the fall, well dryed in the sun, kept from frost and dampness during the winter, in the spring removed from the cellar to a dry loft, and spread thin, and frequently stirred and dryed, or they will grow and be thereby injured for cookery.

A roast Potatoe is brought on with roast Beef, a Steake, a Chop, or Fricassee; good boiled with a boiled dish; make an excellent stuffing for a turkey, water or wild fowl; make a good pie, and a good starch for many uses. All potatoes run out, or depreciate in America; a fresh importation of the Spanish might restore them to table use.

It would swell this treatise too much to say every thing that is useful, to prepare a good table, but I may be pardoned by observing, that the Irish have preserved a genuine mealy rich Potatoe, for a century, which takes rank of any known in any other kingdom; and I have heard that they renew their feed by planting and cultivating the Seed Ball, which grows on the tine. The manner of their managing it to keep up the excellency of that root, would better suit a treatise on agriculture and gardening than this--and be inserted in a book which would be read by the farmer, instead of his aimiable daughter. If no one treats on the subject, it may appear in the next edition.

Onions--The Medeira white is best in market, esteemed softer flavored, and not so fiery, but the high red, round hard onions are the best; if you consult cheapness, the largest are best; if you consult taste and softness, the very smallest are the most delicate, and used at the first tables. Onions grow in the richest, highest cultivated ground, and better and better year after year, on the same ground.

Beets, grow on any ground, but best on loom, or light gravel grounds; the red is the richest and best approved; the white has a sickish sweetness, which is disliked by many.

Parsnips, are a valuable root, cultivated best in rich old grounds, and doubly deep plowed, late sown, they grow thrifty, and are not so prongy; they may be kept any where and any how, so that they do not grow with heat, or are nipped with frost; if frosted, let them thaw on earth; they are richer flavored when plowed out of the ground in April, having stood out during the winter, though they will not last long after, and commonly more sticky and hard in the centre.

Carrots, are managed as it respects plowing and rich ground, similarly to Parsnips. The yellow are better than the orange and red; middling siz'd, that is, a foot long and two inches thick at the top end, are better than over grown ones; they are cultivated best with onions, sowed very thin, and mixed with other seeds, while young or six weeks after sown, especially if with onions on true onion ground. They are good with veal cookery, rich in soups, excellent with hash, in May and June.

Garlicks, though used by the French, are better adapted to the uses of medicine than cookery.

Asparagus--the mode of cultivation belongs to gardening; your business is only to cut and dress, the largest is best, the growth of a day sufficient, six inches long, and cut just above the ground; many cut below the surface, under an idea of getting tender shoots, and preserving the bed; but it enfeebles the root: dig round it and it will be wet with the juices--but if cut above ground, and just as the dew is going off, the sun will either reduce the juice, or send it back to nourish the root--its an excellent vegetable.

Parsley, of the three kinds, the thickest and branchiest is the best, is sown among onions, or in a bed by itself, may be drying for winter use; tho' a method which I have experienced is much better--In September, I dig my roots, procure an old thin stave dry cask, bore holes an inch diameter in every stave, 6 inches asunder round the cask, and up to the top--take first a half bushel of rich garden mold and put into the cask, then run the roots through the staves, leaving the branches outside, press the earth tight about the root within, and thus continue on thro' the respective stories, till the cask is full; it being filled, run an iron bar thro' the center of the dirt in the cask, and fill with water, let stand on the fourth and east side of a building till frosty night, then remove it, (by slinging a rope around the cask) into the cellar; where, during the winter, I clip with my scissars the fresh parsley, which my neighbors or myself have occasion for; and in the spring transplant the roots in the bed in the garden, or in any unused corner--or let stand upon the wharf, or the wash shed. Its an useful mode of cultivation, and a pleasurably tasted herb, and much used in garnishing viands.

Raddish, Salmon coloured is the best, purple next best--white--turnip--each are produced from southern feeds, annually. They grow thriftiest sown among onions. The turnip Raddish will last well through the winter.

Artichokes--the Jerusalem is best, are cultivated like potatoes, (tho' their stocks grow 7 feet high) and may be preserved like the turnip raddish, or pickled--they like,

Horse Raddish, once in the garden, can scarcely ever be totally eradicated, plowing or digging them up with that view, seems at times rather to increase and spread them.

Cucumbers, are of many kinds; the prickly is best for pickles, but generally bitter; the white is difficult to raise and tender; choose the bright green, smooth and proper sized.

Melons-- The Water Melons is cultivated on sandy soils only, above latitude 41 1-2, if a stratum of land be dug from a well, it will bring the first year good Water Melons; the red cored are highest flavored; a hard rine proves them ripe.

Muskmelons, are various, the rough skinned is best to eat; the short, round, fair skinned, is best for Mangoes.

Lettuce, is of various kinds; the purple spotted leaf is generally the tenderest, and free from bitter--your taste must guide your market.

Cabbage, requires a page, they are so multifarious. Note, all Cabbages have a higher relish that grow on new unmanured grounds; if grown in an old town and on old gardens, they have a rankness, which at times, may be perceived by a fresh air traveller. This observation has been experienced for years--that Cabbages require new ground, more than Turnips.

The Low Dutch, only will do in old gardens.

The Early Yorkshire, must have rich foils, they will not answer for winter, they are easily cultivated, and frequently bro't to market in the fall, but will not last the winter.

The Green Savoy, with the richest crinkles, is fine and tender; and altho' they do not head like the Dutch or Yorkshire, yet the tenderness of the out leaves is a counterpoise, it will last through the winter, and are high flavored.

The Yellow Savoy, takes next rank, but will not last so long; all Cabbages will mix, and participate of other species, like Indian Corn; they are culled, best in plants; and a true gardener will, in the plant describe those which will head, and which will not. This is new, but a fact.

The gradations in the Savoy Cabbage are discerned by the leaf; the richest and most scollup'd, and crinkled, and thickest Green Savoy, falls little short of a Colliflower.

The red and redest small tight heads, are best for slaw, it will not boil well, comes out black or blue, and tinges other things with which it is boiled.

To boil Cabbage.
If your cabbage is large, cut it into quarters; if small, cut it in halves; let your water boil, then put in a little salt, and next your cabbage with a little more salt upon it; make your water boil as soon as possible, and when the stalk is tender, take up your cabbage into a cullender, or sieve, that the water may drain off, and send it to table as hot as you can.
Savoys are dressed in the same manner.

B E A N S.

The Clabboard Bean, is easiest cultivated and collected, are good for string beans, will shell--must be poled.

The Windsor Bean, is an earlier, good string, or shell Bean.

Crambury Bean, is rich, but not universally approved equal to the other two.

Frost Bean, is good only to shell.

Six Weeks Bean, is a yellowish Bean, and early brought forward, and tolerable.

Lazy Bean, is tough, and needs no pole.

English Bean what they denominate the Horse Bean, is mealy when young, is profitable, easily cultivated, and may be grown on worn out grounds; as they may be raised by boys, I cannot but recommend the more extensive cultivation of them.

The Small White Bean, is best for winter use, and excellent.

Calivanse, are run out, a yellow small bush, a black speck or eye, are tough and tasteless, and little worth in cookery, and scarcely bear exportation,

Peas--Green Peas.

The Crown Imperial, takes rank in point of flavor, they blossom, purple and white on the top of the vines, will run from three to five feet high, should be set in light sandy soil only, or they run too much to vines.

The Crown Pea, is second in richness of flavor.

The Rondehaval, is large and bitterish.

Early Carlton, is produced first in the season--good.

Marrow Fats, green, yellow, and is large, easily cultivated, not equal to others.

Sugar Pea, needs no bush, the pods are tender and good to eat, easily cultivated.

Spanish Manratto, is a rich Pea, requires a strong high bush.

All Peas should be picked carefully from the vines as soon as dew is off, shelled and cleaned without water, and boiled immediately; they are thus the richest flavored.

To boil all kinds of Garden Stuff. In dressing all sorts of kitchen garden herbs, take care they are clean washed; that there be no small snails, or caterpillars between the leaves; and that all the coarse, outer leaves, and the tops that have received any injury by the weather, be taken off; next wash them in a good deal of water, and put them into a cullender to drain, care must likewise be taken, that your pot or sauce pan be clean, well tinned, and free from sand, or grease.

To keep Green Peas till Christmas.
Take young peas, shell them, put them in a cullender to drain, then lay a cloth four or five times double on a table, then spread them on, dry them very well, and have your bottles ready, fill them, cover them with mutton suet fat when it is a little soft; fill the necks almost to the top, cork them, tie a bladder and a leather over them and set them in a dry cool place.

To boil French Beans.
Take your beans and string them, cut in two and then across, when you have done them all, sprinkle them over with salt, stir them together, as soon as your water boils put them in and make them boil up quick, they will be soon done and they will look of a better green than when growing in the garden; if they are very young, only break off the ends, then break in two and dress them in the same manner.

To boil broad Beans.
Beans require a great deal of water and it is not best to shell them till just before they are ready to go into the pot, when the water boils put them in with some picked parsley and some salt, make them boil up quick, when you see them begin to fall, they are done enough, strain them off, garnish the dish with boiled parsley and send plain butter in a cup or boat.

To boil green Peas.
When your peas are shelled and the water boils, which should not be much more than will cover them, put them in with a few leaves of mint, as soon as they boil put in a piece of butter as big as a walnut, and stir them about, when they are done enough, strain them off, and sprinkle in a little salt, shake them till the water drains off, send them hot to the table with melted butter in a cup or boat.

To boil Asparagus.
First cut the white ends off about six inches from the head, and scrape them from the green part downward very clean, as you scrape them, throw them into a pan of clear water, and after a little soaking, tie them up in small even bundles, when your water boils, put them in, and boil them quick; but by over boiling they will lose their heads; cut a slice of bread for a toast, and toast it brown on both sides; when your asparagus is done, take it up carefully; dip the toast in the asparagus water, and lay it in the bottom of your dish; then lay the heads of the asparagus on it, with the white ends outwards; pour a little melted butter over the heads; cut an orange into small pieces, and stick them between for garnish.

Herbs, useful in Cookery.

Thyme, is good in soups and stuffings.

Sweet Marjoram, is used in Turkeys.

Summer Savory, ditto, and in Sausages and salted Beef, and legs of Pork.

Sage, is used in Cheese and Pork, but not generally approved.

Parsley, good in soups, and to garnish roast Beef, excellent with bread and butter in the spring.

Penny Royal, is a high aromatic, although a spontaneous herb in old ploughed fields, yet might be more generally cultivated in gardens, and used in cookery and medicines.

Sweet Thyme, is most useful and best approved in cookery.

F R U I T S.

Pears, There are many different kinds; but the large Bell Pear, sometimes called the Pound Pear, the yellowest is the best, and in the same town they differ essentially.

Hard Winter Pear, are innumerable in their qualities, are good in sauces, and baked.

Harvest and Summer Pear are a tolerable desert, are much improved in this country, as all other fruits are by grafting and innoculation.

Apples, are still more various, yet rigidly retain their own species, and are highly useful in families, and ought to be more universally cultivated, excepting in the most compactest cities. There is not a single family but might set a tree in some otherwise useless spot, which might serve the two fold use of shade and fruit; on which 12 or 14 kinds of fruit trees might easily be engrafted, and essentially preserve the orchard from the intrusions of boys, &c. which is too common in America. If the boy who thus planted a tree, and guarded and protected it in a useless corner, and carefully engrafted different fruits, was to be indulged free access into orchards, whilst the neglectful boy was prohibited--how many millions of fruit trees would spring into growth--and what a saving to the union. The net saving would in time extinguish the public debt, and enrich our cookery.

Currants, are easily grown from shoots trimmed off from old bunches, and set carelessly in the ground; they flourish on all soils, and make good jellies--their cultivation ought to be encouraged.

Black Currants, may be cultivated--but until they can be dryed, and until sugars are propagated, they are in a degree unprofitable.

Grapes, are natural to the climate; grow spontaneously in every state in the union, and ten degrees north of the line of the union. The Madeira, Lisbon and Malaga Grapes, are cultivated in gardens in this country, and are a rich treat or desert. Trifling attention only is necessary for their ample growth.

To dry Peaches.
Take the fairest and ripest peaches, pare them into fair water; take their weight in double refined sugar; of one half make a very thin sirup; then put in your peaches, boiling them till they look clear, then split and stone them, boil them till they are very tender, lay them a draining, take the other half of the sugar, and boil it almost to a candy; then put in your peaches, and let them lie all night, then lay them on a glass, and set them in a stove, till they are dry, if they are sugared too much, wipe them with a wet cloth a little; let the first sirup be very thin, a quart of water to a pound of sugar.

To pickle or make Mangoes of Melons.
Take green melons, as many as you please, and make a brine strong enough to bear an egg; then pour it boiling hot on the melons, keeping them down under the brine; let them stand five or six days; then take them out, slit them down on one side, take out all the seeds, scrape them well in the inside, and wash them clean with cold water; then take a clove of garlick, a little ginger and nutmeg sliced, and a little whole pepper; put all these proportionably into the melons, filling them up with mustard-seeds; then lay them in an earthen pot with the slit upwards, and take one part of mustard and two parts of vinegar, enough to cover them, pouring it upon them scalding hot, and keep them close stopped.

To pickle Barberries.
Take of white wine vinegar and water, of each an equal quantity; to every quart of this liquor, put in half a pound of cheap sugar, then pick the worst of your barberries and put into this liquor, and the best into glasses; then boil your pickle with the worst of your barberries, and skim it very clean, boil it till it looks of a fine colour, then let it stand to be cold, before you strain it; then strain it through a cloth, wringing it to get all the colour you can from the barberries; let it stand to cool and settle, then pour it clear into the glasses; in a little of the pickle, boil a little fennel; when cold, put a little bit at the top of the pot or glass, and cover it close with a bladder or leather. To every half pound of sugar, put a quarter of a pound of white salt.

To pickle Cucumbers.
Let your cucumbers be small, fresh gathered, and free from spots; then make a pickle of salt and water, strong enough to bear an egg; boil the pickle and skim it well, and then pour it upon your cucumbers, and stive them down for twenty four hours; then strain them out into a cullender, and dry them well with a cloth, and take the best white wine vinegar, with cloves, sliced mace, nutmeg, white pepper corns, long pepper, and races of ginger, (as much as you please) boil them up together, and then clap the cucumbers in, with a few vine leaves, and a little salt, and as soon as they begin to turn their colour, put them into jars, stive them down close, and when cold, tie on a bladder and leather.

To keep Damsons.
Take damsons when they are first ripe, pick them off carefully, wipe them clean, put them into snuff bottles, stop them up tight so that no air can get to them, nor water; put nothing into the bottles but plumbs, put the bottles into cold water, hang them over the fire, let them heat slowly, let the water boil slowly for half an hour, when the water is cold take out the bottles, set the bottles into a cold place, they will keep twelve months if the bottles are stopped tight, so as no air nor water can get to them. They will not keep long after the bottles are opened; the plumbs must be hard.

American Cookery, or the art of dressing viands, fish, poultry, and vegetables, and the best modes of making pastes, puffs, pies, tarts, puddings, custards, and preserves, and all kinds of cakes, from the imperial plum to plain cake: Adapted to this country, and all grades of life.
By Amelia Simmons. Hartford: Printed for Simeon Butler, Northampton, (1798)

Note: This information also appears in a book which is essentially a pirated editon of Amelia Simmons' American Cookery (1798).

The New-England cookery, or the art of dressing all kinds of flesh, fish, and vegetables, and the best modes of making pastes, puffs, pies, tarts, puddings, custards and preserves, and all kinds of cakes, from the imperial plumb to the plain cake. Particularly adapted to this part of our country.
By Lucy Emerson. Montpelier, VT: Printed for Josiah Parks, 1808.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Plants in Early American Gardens - Tatarian Aster

 Tatarian Aster (Aster tataricus)
Tatarian Aster (Aster tataricus)

This stately and spectacular Aster—native to Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Northern China, and Siberia—was first introduced to the West in 1818. It was likely not common in American gardens before the mid nineteenth century. The flowers of this species are extremely attractive to Monarch butterflies and other pollinators. The erect flower stalks rarely need staking and the plant has no serious insect or disease problems. It is useful in the back of the perennial flower border or naturalized in a wildflower area. This species is known to have antibacterial action and has been used in Chinese medicine.

For more information & the possible availability for purchase

Monday, November 4, 2019

Garden to Table - Edible Plants in John Gerard's 1633 Herbal

John Gerard. Herball or General Historie of Plantes. 1633

John Gerard (1545-1612) was one of the most respected plant experts of his time, but apparently, he was not the primary author of his famous "The Herball of Generall Historie of Plantes" of 1597. He plagiarized a manuscript by Dr. Robert Priest that was a translation of the Flemish physician and botanist, Rembert Dodoens’ "Stirpium Historia Pemptades Sex."

Gerard was originally supposed to finish the translation after Priest died, instead he added 182 new plants, revised the arrangement, appended his own observations and claimed the entire work as his own. In a rush to publish, Gerard made a great number of errors in his first edition. However, that first edition held the field without a competitor for more than a generation.

Gerard is the best known botanist published in English. His work has remained popular for over 400 years for its amalgamation of horticultural lore, its collection of medical "virtues" of plants, and, not least, its graceful and delightful English prose.

Gerard was born in Cheshire, England and attended a village school in Wisterson. He was apprenticed for a career of a surgeon in 1562 and achieved eminence in his profession, being elected Master of the Company of Barker-Surgeons. He traveled the Baltic coast to "Denmarke, Swevia, Poland, Livinia, and Russia."

Gerard's reputation, however, rests on horticulture. As early as 1577, he superintended several gardens and plant collections of William Cecil (Lord Burghley, the first minister of Queen Elizabeth) including his residence in the Strand and at Theobalds, Hertfordshire. In 1586 he was appointed curator of the College of Physicians physics garden. In addition, Gerard’s own garden at Holborn, between Chancery Lane and Fetter Lane included "all the rare samples" and "all manners of strange trees, herbs, roots, plants, flowers and other rare things ..."

Gerard’s list of plants in his Holborn garden published in 1596 was the first garden catalog printed in English and included over 1,000 species including the first English mention of potato. However, Gerard’s most famous work is his Herball or General Historie of Plants, published in 1597.

Although John Gerard reported on a variety of edible plants in his herbal, eating vegetables was not particularly popular in 17C & 18C British Colonial America. In 1705, Robert Beverly, in his The History and Present State of Virginia (1705), wrote: “A Kitchen-Garden don’t thrive better or faster in any part of the Universe, than there [Virginia]. They have all the Culinary Plants that grow in England, and in far greater perfection.” But in fact, he observed that typical attempts at gardening in Virginia were not “fit to bear the name of gardens.”

Swiss traveler Frances Michel visiting the Williamsburg, Virginia area late in 1702, reported, “The inhabitants pay little attention to garden plants except lettuce, although most everything grows here.”

"Amygdalus. Of the Almond Tree.
There is drawne out of sweet Almonds, with liquor added, a white iuice like milke... Almonds taken before meate do stop the belly, and nourish but little; notwithstanding many excellent meates and medicines are therewith made for sundry griefes, yea very delicat and wholsome meates, as Almond butter, creame of Almonds, marchpane, and such like, which dry and stay the belly more than the extracted iuyce or milke; and they are also as good for the chest and lungs."

"Malus Carbonaria. Of the Apple tree.
The tame and graffed Apple trees are planted and set in gardens and orchards made for that purpose... I haue seene in the pastures and hedge-rows about the grounds of a worshipful gentleman... so many trees of all sorts, that the seruants drinke for the most part no other drinke but that which is made of Apples; The quantity is such, that by the report of the Gentleman himselfe, the Parson hath for tithe many hogsheads of Syder...
Rosted apples are alwaies better than the raw, the harm whereof is both mended by the fire, and may also be corrected by adding vnto them seeds or spices."

"Armeniaca malus maior. Of the Aprecocke or Abrecocke tree.
Aprecocks are cold and moist in the second degree, but yet not so moist as Peaches, for which cause they do not so soone or easily putrifie, and they are also more wholesome for the stomacke, and pleasant to the taste; yet do they likewise putrifie, and yeeld but little nourishment, and the same cold, moist, and full of excrements: being taken after meate they corrupt and putrifie in the stomacke; being first eaten before other meate they easily descend, and cause the other meates to passe downe the sooner, like as also the Peaches do."

"Cinara. Artichoke.
The nailes, that is, the white and thicke parts which are in the bottome of the outward scales or flakes of the fruit of the Artichoke, and also the middle pulpe whereon the downy seed stands, are eaten both raw with pepper and salt, and commonly boyled with the broth of fat flesh, with pepper added, and are accounted a dainty dish, being pleasant to the taste, and good to procure bodily lust: so likewise the middle ribs of the leaues being made white and tender by good cherishing and looking to, are brought to the table as a great seruice together with other junkets: they are eaten with pepper and salt as be the raw Artichokes... But it is best to eate the Artichoke boyled... Some write, that if the buds of yong Artichokes be first steeped in wine, and eaten, they prouoke vrine, and stir vp the lust of the body."

"Asparagus. Sperage, or Asparagus.
...The first sprouts or naked tender shoots hereof be oftentimes sodden in flesh broth and eaten, or boyled in faire water, and seasoned with oyle, vineger, salt, and pepper, then are serued at mens tables for a sallad; they are pleasant to the taste, easily concocted, and gently loose the belly..."

"Musa fructus. Of Adams Apple tree, or the West-Indian Plantaine.
...Aprill 10. 1633. my much honored friend... gaue me a plant he receiued from the Bermuda's... The fruit which I receiued was not ripe, but greene, each of them was about the bignesse of a large Beane... This stalke with the fruit thereon I hanged vp in my shop, where it became ripe about the beginning of May, and lasted vntil Iune: the pulp or meat was very soft and tender, and it did eate somewhat like a Muske-Melon...
The fruit hereof yeeldeth but little nourishment: it is good for the heate of the breast, lungs, and bladder: it stoppeth the liuer, and hurteth the stomacke if too much of it be eaten, and procureth loosenesse in the belly: whereupon it is requisit for such as are of a cold constitution, in the eating thereof to put vnto it a little Ginger or other spice."

"Hordeum Distichon. Common Barley. serueth for Ptisana, Polenta, Maza, Malt, ale and Beere. The making whereof if any be desirous to learne, let them reade Lobelius Aduersaria, in the chapter of Barley... There be sundry sorts of Confections made of Barley, as Polenta, Ptisana, made of water and husked or hulled barley, and such like. Polenta is the meate made of parched Barley...Maza is made of parched Barley tempered with water... Hesychius doth interpret maza to be Barley meale mixed with water and oyle."

Bastard Parsley
" Caucalis. Bastard Parsley.
Dioscorides saith, that bastard Parsley is a pot-herbe which is eaten either raw or boiled, and prouoketh vrine. Pliny doth reckon it vp also among the pot-herbes; Galen addeth, that it is preserued in pickle for sallades in winter. "

Bastard Saffron
"Carthamus siue Cnicus. Bastard Saffron.
The seed vsed as aforesaid [bruised and strained into honied water or the broth of a chicken -- ed.], and srained into milke, causeth it to curdle and yeeld much cruds..."

"Laurus. Of the Bay or Laurell tree.
The later Physitions doe oftentimes vse to boyle the leaues of Laurell with diuers meats, especially fishes, and by so doing there happeneth no desire of vomiting: but the meat seasoned herewith becommeth more sauory and better for the stomacke."

"Beta alba. White Beets.
...the white Beete is a cold and moist pot-herbe...Being eaten when it is boyled, it quickly descendeth... especially being taken with the broth wherein it is sodden..."

Beta rubra, Beta rubra Romana. Red Beets, Red Roman Beets.

...The great and beautiful Beet last described may be vsed in winter for a salad herbe, with vinegar, oyle, and salt, and is not onely pleasant to the taste, but also delightfull to the eye.

The greater red Beet or Roman Beet, boyled and eaten with oyle, vineger and pepper, is a most excellent and delicate sallad: but what might be made of the red and beautifull root (which is to be preferred before the leaues, as well in beauty as in goodnesse) I refer vnto the curious and cunning cooke, who no doubt when he hath had the view thereof, and is assured that it is both good and wholesome, will make thereof many and diuers dishes, both faire and good."

"Viola Mariana. Bell-Floures or Couentry-Bells.
"The root is cold and somewhat binding, and not vsed in physicke, but only for a sallet root boyled and eaten with oyle, vinegar, and pepper."

"Borago. Borage.
...Those of our time do vse the floures in sallads, to exhilerate and make the mind glad... The leaues boyled among other pot-herbes do much preuaile in making the belly soluble..."

"Tragopyron. Buck-wheat.
...Bread made of the meale of Buck-wheat is of easie digestion, and speedily passeth through the belly, but yeeldeth little nourishment"

"Pimpinella hortensis... Garden Burnet.
...The lesser Burnet is pleasant to be eaten in sallads, in which it is thought to make the heart merry and glad, as also being put into wine, to which it yeeldeth a certaine grace in the drinking."

"Capparis. Capers.
They stir vp an appetite to meat... They are eaten boiled (the salt first washed off) with oile and vineger, as other sallads be, and sometimes are boiled with meat."

"Carum, siue Carcum.
It consumeth winde, it is delightfull to the stomacke and taste... the root may be sodden, and eaten as the Parsenep or Carrot is.
The seeds confected, or made with sugar into Comfits, are very good for the stomacke..."

"Ceratia siliqua, sive Ceratonia. Of the Carob tree, or Saint Iohns Bread.
...the fruit or long cods... are of a sweet taste, and are eaten of diuers, but not before they be gathered and dried; for being as yet green, though ripe, they are vnpleasant to be eaten by reason of their ill fauoured taste..."

"Pastinaca sativa tenuifolia, Pastinaca satiua atro-rubens.
The root of the yellow Carrot is most commonly boiled with fat flesh and eaten... The red Carrot is of like facultie with the yellow."

"Cerasus vulgaris. Of the Cherrie Tree.
The best and principall Cherries be those that are somewhat sower: those little sweet ones which be wilde and soonest ripe be the worst: they containe bad juice, they very soon putrifie, and do ingender ill bloud... The late ripe Cherries which the French-men keep dried against winter, and are by them called Morelle, and we after the same name call them Morell Cherries, are dry, and do somewhat binde; these being dried are pleasant to the taste, and wholesome for the stomacke, like as Prunes be, and do stop the belly. Generally all the kindes of Cherries are cold and moist of temperature, although some more cold and moist than others: the which being eaten before meat doe soften the belly very gently... Many excellent Tarts and other pleasant meats are made with Cherries, sugar, and other delicat spices, whereof to write were to small purpose."

"Cerefolium Cheruill.
Cheruill is held to be one of the pot-herbes, it is pleasant to the stomacke and taste... It is vsed very much among the Dutch people in a kinde of Loololly or hotch-pot which they do eate, called Warmus. The leaues of sweet Cheruill are exceeding good, wholesome, and pleasant, among other sallad herbs, giuing the taste of Anise seed vnto the rest... The seeds eaten as a sallad whilest hey are yet greene, with oyle, vineger, and pepper, exceed all other sallads by many degrees, both in pleasantnesse of taste, sweetnesse of smell, and wholsomnesse for the cold and feeble stomacke.
The roots are likewise most excellent in a sallad, if they be boyled and after dressed as the cunning Cooke knoweth how better than my selfe: notwithstanding I doe vse to eate them with oile and vineger, being first boyled; which is very good for old people that are dull and without courage; it reioyceth and comforteth the heart, and increaseth their lust and strength."

"Castanea. Of the Chestnut tree.
Our common Chestnuts are very dry and binding, and be nither hot nor cold, but in a mean betweene both: yet haue they in them a certaine windinesse, and by reason of this, vnlesse the shell be firest cut, they skip suddenly with a cracke out of the fire whilest they be rosting... Being boiled or rosted they are not of so hard digestion... Some affirme, that of raw Chestnuts dried, and afterwards turned into meale, there is made a kinde of bread: yet it must needs be, that this should be dry and brittle, hardly concocted, and verie slow in passing thorow the belly..."

Citrus Fruit
"Malus. Of the Citron, Limon, Orange, and Assyrian Apple trees.
[the rind of the Pomecitron] is good to be eaten against a stinking breath, for it maketh the breath sweet; and being so taken it comforteth the cold stomacke exceedingly. The white, sound, and hard pulpe is now and then eaten, but very hardly concocted, and ingendreth a grosse, cold, and phlegmaticke iuyce; but being condite with sugar, it is both pleasant in taste, and easie to be digested, more nourishing, and lesse apt to obstruction and binding or stopping.
Galen reporteth, that the inner iuice of the Pomecitron was not wont to be eaten, but it is now vsed for sauce; and being often vsed, it represseth choler which is in the stomacke, and procures appetite..."

Clove Gillyflowers
"Caryophyllus. Cloue Gillofloure.
The conserue made of the floures of the Cloue Gillofloure and sugar, is exceeding cordial, and wonderfully aboue measure doth comfort the heart, being eaten now and then."

"Nux Indica arbor. Of the Indian Nut tree. vnto the shell vpon the inside there cleueth a white cornelly substance firme and sollid, of the colour and taste of a blanched Almond: within the cauitie or hollownes thereof is contained a most delectable liquor like vnto milke, an dof a most pleasant taste.
...The distilled liquor is called Sula; and the oile that is made thereof, Copra... The Indians do vse to cut the twigs and tender branches toward the euening, at the ends whereof they haue bottle gourds, hollow canes, and such like things, fit to receiue the water that droppeth from the branches thereof, which pleasant liquor they drinke in stead of wine, from the which is drawne a strong and comfortable Aqua Vitae... Likewise they make of the shell of the Nut, cups to drike in, which we likewise vse in England, garnished with siluer for the same purposes. The kernell serueth them for bread and meat; the milkie iuice doth serue to coole and refresh their wearied spirits: out of the kernel when it is stamped, is pressed a most precious oile, not onely good for meat, but also for medicine..."

"Coriandrum. Corianders.
Coriander seed prepared and couered with sugar, as comfits, taken after meat closeth vp the mouth of the stomacke, staieth vomiting, and helpeth digestion... The manner how to prepare Coriander, both for meat and medicine. Take the seed well and sufficiently dried, whereupon poure some wine and vinegar, and so leaue them to infuse or steepe foure and twentie houres, then take them forth and drie them, and keepe them for your vse."

"Chrysanthemum. Corne-Marigold.
The stalkes and leaues of Corne Marigold, as Dioscorides saith, are eaten as other pot-herbes are."

Cow Parsnips
"Sphondylium. Cow Parsnep.
The people of Polonia and Lituania vse to make drinke with the decoction of this herbe, and leuen or some other thing made of meale, which is vsed in stead of beere and other ordinarie drinke."

Cowslips of Jerusalem
"Pulmonaria... Cowslips of Jerusalem.
The leaues are vsed among pot-herbes."

"Nasturtium hortense. Garden Cresses.
...Galen saith that the Cresses may be eaten with bread Velutiobsonium, and so the Antient Spartanes vsually did; and the low-Countrie men many times doe, who commonly vse to feed of Cresses with bread and butter. It is eaten with other sallade hearbes, as Tarragon and Rocket..."

"Cucumis... Cucumbers.
Cucumber (saith my Author) taken in meats, is good for the stomack and other parts troubled with heat... [a cure]The fruit cut in pieces or chopped as herbes to the pot and boiled in a small pipkin with a piece of mutton, being made into potage with Ote-meale, euen as herb potage are made, whereof a messe eaten to break-fast, as much to dinner, and the like to supper; taken in this manner for the space of three weekes... doth perfectly cure all manner of sawce-flegme and copper faces... "

"Palma. Of the Date tree.
...the fruit is ripe in September, and being then gathered they are dried in the Sunne, that they may be the better both transported into other countries far distant, as also preserued from rotting at home... All manner of Dates whatsoeuer are hard of digestion, and cause head-ache: the worser sort be those that be dry and binding, as the Egyptian Dates; but the soft, moist, and sweet ones are lesse hurtfull... The Dates which grow in colder regions, when they cannot come to perfect ripenesse, if they be eaten too plentifully, do fill the body full of raw humors, ingender winde, and oft times cause the leprosie... There is made hereof both by the cunning Confectioners and Cookes, diuers excellent cordiall, comfortable, and nourishing medicines, and that procure lust of the body very mightily."

Fennell Gyant
" Ferula. Herbe Ferula, or Fennell Gyant.
...It is reported to be eaten in Apulia rosted in the embers, first wrapped in leaues or in old clouts, with pepper and salt; which, as they say, is a pleasant sweet food, that stirreth vp lust, as they report."

"Ficus. Of the Fig tree.
The dry Figs do nourish better than the greene or new Figs; notwithstanding they ingender not very good bloud, for such people as do feed much thereon doe become lowsie... Dioscorides saith, that the white liquor of the Fig tree, and the iuice of the leaues, do curdle milke as rennet doth, and dissolve the milke that is cluttered in the stomacke, as doth vinegar."

"Nux Auellana, sive Corylus. Of the Hasell tree.
...this kernell is sweet and pleasant vnto the taste... Hasell Nuts newly gathered, and not as yet dry, containe in them a certaine superfluous moisture, by reason whereof they are windie: not onely the new gathered Nuts, but the dry also, be very hard of digestion; for they are of an earthy and cold essence, and of an hard and sound substance, for which cause also they very slowly passe thorow the belly, therefore they are troublesome and clogging to the stomacke, cause head-ache, especially when they be eaten in too great a quantitie. The kernells of Nuts made into milke like Almonds do mightily bind the belly, and are good for the laske and the bloudy flix."

"Linum sativum. Garden Flaxe.
...Galen in his first booke of the faculties of nourishments saith, that diuers vse the seed hereof parched as a sustenacne [sic] with Garum, no otherwise than made salt. They also vse it mixed with hony, some likewise put it among bread but it is hurtfull to the stomacke, and hard of digestion... at Middleborough in Zeland, where for want of graine and other corne, most of the Citizens were faine to eate bread and cakes made hereof with hony and oile, who were in short time after swolne in the belly below the short ribs, faces, & other parts of their bodies in such sort, that a great number were brought to their graues thereby..."

"Zingiberis. Of Ginger.
Ginger, as Dioscorides reporteth, is right good with meate in sauces, or otherwise in conditures: for it is of an heating and digesting qualitie canded, greene or condited Ginger is hot and moist in qualitie, prouoking Venerie: and being dried, it heateth or drieth in the third degree."

"Vua Crispa. Of Goose-berrie, or Fea-berry Bush.
The fruit is vsed in diuers sauces for meate, as those that are skilfull in cookerie can better tel than my selfe. They are vsed in broths in stead of Veriuice, chich maketh the broth not onely pleasant to the taste, but greatly profitable to such as are troubled with a hot burning ague...The young and tender leaues eaten raw in a sallad, prouoke vrine, and driue forth the stone and grauell."

"Cucurbita... Gourds.
The Gourds are cherished in the gardens of these cold regions rather for pleasure than for profit: in the hot coutries where they cope to ripenesse there are sometimes eaten, but with small delight; especially they are kept for the rindes, wherein they put Turpentine, Oyle, Hony, and also serue them for pales to fetch water in, and many other like vses...
The pulpe also is eaten sodden... But being baked in an ouen or fried in a pan it loseth the most part of his naturall moisture..."

"Guayava arboris ramus. Of the Guayaua, or Orange-Bay.
The fruit is vsually eaten, the rinde being first taken off; it is pleasing to the palate, wholesome and easie of concoction... if rosted, it is good both for the sound and sicke; for so handled it is wholsommer, and of a more pleasing taste..."

"Cannabis. Hempe.
The seed of Hempe, as Galen writeth in his bookes of the faculties of simple medicines, is hard of digestion, hurtfull to the stomacke and head, and containeth in it an ill iuyce: notwithstanding some do vse to eate the same parched, cum alijs tragematis, with other junkets... Matthiolus saith, that the seed giuen to hens causeth them to lay egges more plentifully."

"Lupus salictarius. Hops.
The buds or first sprouts which come forth in the Spring are vsed to be eaten in sallads... The floures are vsed to season Beere or Ale with, and too many do cause bitternesse thereof... The floures make bread light, and the lumpe to be sooner and easilier leauened, if the meale be tempered with liquor wherein they haue been boyled."

"Raphanus rusticanus. Horse Radish.
...Horse Radish stamped with a little vineger put thereto, is commonly vsed among the Germanes for sauce to eate fish with, and such like meates, as we doe mustard; but this kinde of sauce doth heate the stomacke better, and causeth better digestion than mustard."

"Sedum minus. Lesser Houseleekes or Prickmadams. vsed in many places in sallads, in which it hath a fine relish, and a pleasant taste..."

Jerusalem Artichoke
"Flos Solis Pyramidalis. Jerusalem Artichoke.
These rootes are dressed in diuers waies; some boile them in water, and after stew them with sacke and butter, adding a little Ginger: others bake them in pies, putting Marrow, Dates, Ginger, Raisons of the Sun, Sacke, &c. Others some other way, as they are led by their skill in Cookerie. But in my iudgement, which way soeuer they be drest and eaten they stirre and cause a filthie loathsome stinking winde within the bodie, thereby causing the belly to bee pained and tormented, and are a meat more fit for swine, than men..."

Kidney Beans
"Phaseolus [and] Smilax. Of Kidney Beane.
The fruit and cods of Kidney Beanes boiled together before they be ripe, and buttered, and so eaten with their cods, are exceeding delicate meat, and do not ingender winde as the other Pulses doe. They doe also gently loose the belly, prouoke vrine, and ingender good bloud reasonably well; but if you eat them when they be ripe, they are neither toothsome nor wholsome. Therefore they are to be taken whilest they are yet greene and tender, which are first boiled vntill they be tender; then is the tib or sinew that doth run alongst the cod to be taken away; then must they be put into a stone pipkin, r some other vessell with butter, and set to the fire againe to stew, or boile gently: which meat is very wholsome, nourishing, and of a pleasant taste."

"Lactuca. Lettuce.
...Lettuce maketh a pleasant sallad, being eaten raw with vineger, oyle, and a little salt: but if it be boyled it is sooner digested, and nourisheth more. It is serued in these dayes, and in these countries in the beginning of supper, and eaten first before any other meate: which also Martiall testifieth to be done in his time, maruelling why some did vse it for a seruice at the end of supper, in these verses...

Tell me why Lettuce, which our Grandsires last did eate,
Is now of late become, to be the first of meate?

Notwithstanding it may now and then be eaten at both those times to the health of the body: for being taken before meat it doth many times stir vp appetite: and eaten after supper it keepeth away drunkennesse which commeth by the wine; and that is by reason that it stayeth the vapors from rising vp into the head."

"Glycyrrhiza vulgaris. Of Liquorice.
...with the juice of Licorice, Ginger, and other spices, there is made a certaine bread or cakes, called Ginger-bread, which is very good against the cough, and all the infirmities of the lungs and brest: which is cast into moulds, some of one fashion, and some of another...
These things concerning Liquorice hath also Theophrastus: viz. that with this and with cheese made of Mares milke the Scythians were reported to be able to liue eleuen or twelue dayes."

Mad Apples [eggplant?]
"Mala insana. Madde or raging Apples.
...The people of Tolledo do eat them with great deuotion being boiled with fat flesh, putting thereto some scraped cheese, which they do keepe in vineger, honie, or salt pickell all Winter to procure lust. Petrus Bellonius, and Hermolaus Barbarus, report that in Egypt and Barbary they vse to eat the fruit of Mala insana boiled or rosted vnder ashes, with oile, vineger, & pepper, as people vse to eat Mushroms. But I rather wish English men to content themselues with the meat and sauce of our owne Countrey, than with fruit and sauce eaten with such perill: for doubtlesse these apples haue a mischievuous qualitie, the vse whereof is vtterly to be forsaken..."

"Calendula. Marigold.
The yellow leaues of the floures are dried and kept throughout Dutchland against Winter, to put into broths, in physicall potions, and for diuers other purposes, in such quantity, that in some Grocers or Spice-sellers houses are to be found barrels filled with them, and retailed by the penny more or lesse, insomuch that no broths are well made without dried Marigolds."

" Mariorana. Marierome.
The leaues are excellent good to be put into all odoriferous ointments, waters, pouders, broths, and meates."

Melons or Pompions
" Pepo... Melons, or Pompions.
The pulpe of the Pompion is neuer eaten raw, but boiled... The fruit boiled in milke and buttered, is not onely a good wholesome meat for mans body, but being so prepare, is also a most physicall medicine for such as haue an hot stomacke... The flesh or pulpe of the same sliced and fried in a pan with butter, is also a good and wholesome meat: but baked with apples in an ouen, it doth fil the body with flatuous or windie belchings, and is food vtterly vnwholesome for such as liue idlely; but vnto robustious and rustick people nothing hurteth that filleth the belly."

"Mentha. Mints.
Garden Mint taken in meat or drinke warmeth and strengtheneth the stomacke... and causeth good digestion."

"Morus. Of the Mulberrie tree.
These Mulberries taken in meat, and also before meat, do very speedily passe through the belly, by reason of the moisture and slipperinesse of their substance, and make a passage for other meats, as Galen saith. They are good to quench thirst, they stir vp and appetite to meat, they are not hurtfull to the stomacke, but they nourish the body very little, being taken in the second place, or after meat..."

"Sinapi sativum. Garden Mustard.
...The seed of Mustard pound with vinger, is an excellent sauce, good to be eaten with any grosse meates either fish or flesh, because it doth helpe digestion, warmeth the stomacke, and prouoketh appetite."

"Avena Vesca. Common Otes. vsed in many countries to make sundry sorts of bread; as in Lancashire, where it is their chiefest bread corne for Iannocks, Hauer cakes, Tharffe cakes, and those which are called generally Oten cakes; and for the most part they call the graine Hauer, whereof they do likewise make drink for want of Barley."

"Olea sativa. Of the Oliue Tree.
The Oliues which be so ripe as that either they fall off themselues, or be ready to fall... be moderately hot and moist, yet being eaten they yeeld to the body little nourishment. The vnripe oliues are dry and binding. Tose that are preserued in pickle, called Colymbades, do dry vp the ouermuch moisture of the stomacke, they remoue the loathing of meate, stirre vp an appetite; but there is no nourishment at all that is to be looked for in them, much lesse good nourishment."

"Cepa. Onions.
...The Onion being eaten, yea though it be boyled, causeth head-ache, hurteth the eyes, and maketh a man dimme sighted, dulleth the sences, ingendreth windinesse, and prouoketh ouermuch sleepe, especially being eaten raw. ...There is also another small kinde of Onion, called... Scallions... It is vsed to be eaten in sallads."

"Atriplex. Orach.
Dioscorides writeth, That the garden Orach is both moist and cold, and that it is eaten boyled as other sallad herbes are...."

"Apium hortense. Garden Parsley.
The leaues are pleasant in sauces and broth, in which besides that they giue a pleasant taste, they be also singular good to take away stoppings, and to prouoke vrine: which thing the roots likewise do notable performe if they be boiled in broth: they be also delightfull to the taste, and agreeable to the stomacke."

"Pastinaca latifolia sativa. Garden Parsneps.
The Parsneps nourish more than doe the Turneps or the Carrots... There is a good and pleasant food or bread made of the roots of Parsneps, as my friend Mr. Plat hath set forth in his booke of experiments, which I haue made no triall of, nor meane to do."

"Persica alba. Of the Peach tree.
Peaches be cold and moist, and that in the second degree; they haue a juice and also a substance that doth easily putrifie, which yeeldeth no nourishment, but bringeth hurt, especially if they be eaten after other meates; for then they cause the other meates to putrifie. But they are lesse hurtfull if they be taken first; for by reason that they are moist and slippery, they easily and quickly descend; and by making the belly slippery, they cause other meates to slip downe the sooner."

"Pyra. Of the Peare tree.
To write of Pears and Apples in particular, would require a particular volume: the stocke or kindred of Pears are not to be numbred: euery country hath his peculiar fruit... Wine made of the iuice of peares called in English, Perry, is soluble, purgeth those that are not accustomed to drinke thereof, especially when it is new; notwithstanding it is as wholsome a drink being taken in small qunatitie as wine; it comforteth and warmeth the stomacke, and causeth good digestion."

"Pisum maius. Of Peason.
Galen writeth, that Peason are in their whole substance like vnto Beanes, and be eaten after the same manner that Beans are..."

"Capsicum. Ginnie or Indian Pepper.
...Ginnie pepper hath the taste of pepper, but not the power or vertue, notwithstanding in Spaine and sundrie parts of the Indies they do vse to dresse their meate therewith, as we doe with Calecute pepper: but (saith my Authour) it hath in it a malicious qualitie, whereby it is an enemy to the liuer and other of the entrails... It is said to die or colour like Saffron; and being receiued in such sort as Saffron is vsually taken, it warmeth the stomacke, and helpeth greatly the digestion of meates."

"Prunus Domestica. Of the Plum tree.
Plummes that be ripe and new gathered from the tree, what sort soeuer they are of, do moisten and coole, and yeeld vnto the body very little nourishment, and the same nothing good at all: for as Plummes do very quickly rot, so is also the iuice of them apt to putrifie in the body, and likewise to cause the meat to putrifie which is taken with them... Dried Plums, commonly called Prunes, are wholsomer, and more pleasant to the stomack, they teeld more nonrishment, and better, and such as cannot easily putrifie..."

Pine tree
"Pinus sativa, sive domestica. Of the Pine Tree.
The kernels of these nuts...[?] yeeldeth a thicke and good iuice, and nourisheth much, yet it is not altogether easie of digestion, and therefore it is mixed with preserues, or boyled with sugar."

"Caryophyllus. Pinks or wilde Gillofloures.
The conserue made of the floures of the Cloue Gillofloure and sugar, is exceeding cordial, and wonderfully aboue measure doth comfort the heart, being eaten now and then."

"Pistacia. Of Fisticke Nuts.
The kernels of the Fisticke Nuts are oftentimes eaten as be those of the Pine Apples; they be of temperature hot and moist; they are not so easily concocted, but much easier than common nuts... The kernels of Fisticke nuts condited, or made into comfits, with sugar, and eaten, doe procure bodily lust, vnstop the lungs and the brest, are good against the shortnesse of breath, and are an excellent preseruatiue medicine being ministred in wine against the bitings of all manner of wilde beasts."

"Malus Granata, siue Punica. Of the Pomegranat tree.
As there be sundry sorts of Apples, Peares, Plums, and such like fruits, so there are two sorts of Pomegranates, the garden and the wilde... the fruit of the garden Pomegranat is of three sorts; one hauing a soure iuyce or liquor; another hauing a very sweet and pleasant liquor, and the third the taste of wine... The iuicie grains of the Pomegranate are good to be eaten, hauing in them a meetly good iuice: they are wholesome for the stomacke..."

"Papauer. Garden Poppies.
...This seed, as Galen saith in his booke of the Faculties of nourishments, is good to season bread with; but the white is better than the black. He also addeth, that the same is cold and causeth sleepe, and yeeldeth no commendable nourishment to the body; it is often vsed in comfits, serued at the table with other iunketting dishes. The oile which is pressed out of it is pleasant and delightfull to be eaten, and is taken with bread or any other waies in meat, without any sence of cooling."

"Battata Virginiana, siue Virginianorum, & Pappus. Virginian Potatoes.
The temperature and vertues be referred vnto the common [sweet] Potatoes, being likewise a food, as also a meate for pleasure, equall in goodnesse and wholesomenesse vnto the same, being either rosted in the embers, or boyled and eaten with oyle, vinegar, and pepper, or dressed any other way by the hand of some cunning in cookerie."

"Malus Cotonea. Of the Quince Tree.
Quinces be cold and dry in the second degree, and also very much binding, especially when they be raw: they haue likewise in them a certaine superfluous and excrementall moisture, which will not suffer them to lie long without rotting. they are seldom eaten rawe: being rosted or baked they be more pleasant... Simeon Sethi writeth, that the woman with childe, which eateth many Quinces during the time of her breeding, shall bring forth wise children, and of good vnderstanding.
The Marmalade, or Cotininate, made of Quinces and sugar, is good and profitable for the strengthening of the stomacke, that it may retaine and keepe the meat therein vntill it be perfectly digested... which Cotiniate is made in this manner: Take faire Quinces, pare them, cut them in pieces, and cast away the core, then put vnto euery pound of Quinces a pound of sugar, and to euery pound of sugar a pinte of water: these must bee boiled together ouer a still fire till they be very soft, then let it be strained or rather rubbed through a strainer, or an hairy sieue, which is better, and then set it ouer the fire to boile againe, vntill it be stiffe, and so box it vp, and as it cooleth put thereto a little Rose water, and a few graines of Muske, well mingled together, which will giue a goodly taste vnto the Cotiniat. This is the way to make Marmalade:
Take whole Quinces and boile them in water vntill they be as soft as a scalded codling or apple, then pill off the skin, and cut off the flesh, and stampe it in a stone mortar; then straine it as you did the Cotiniate; afterward put it into a pan to drie, but not to seeth at all: and vnto euery pound of the flesh of Quinces, put three quarters of a pound of sugar, and in the cooling you may put in rose water and a little Muske, as was said before... Many other excellent, dainty and wholesome confections are to be made of Quinces, as ielly of Quinces, and such odde conceits, which for breuitie sake I do now let passe."

"Raphanus sativus. Radish.
...Radish are eaten raw with bread in stead of other food... for the most part, they are vsed in sauce with meates to procure appetite, and in that sort they ingender blood lesse faulty, than eaten alone or with bread onely..."

"Caulorapum rotundum. Of Rape-Cole.
There is nothing set downe of the faculties of these plants, but are accounted for daintie meate, contending with the Cabbage Cole in goodnesse and pleasant taste."

"Oryza. Rice.
...In England we vse to make with milke and Rice a certaine food or pottage, which doth both meanly binde the belly, and also nourish. Many other good kindes of food is made with this graine, as those that are skilfull in cookerie can tell."

"Rosa. Of Roses.
The distilled water of roses... being put into iunketting dishes, cakes, sauces, and many other pleasant things, giueth a fine and delectable taste...
The conserue of Roses... is thus made: Take the leaues [petals] of Roses, the nails cut off, one pound, put them into a clean pan; then put thereto a pinte and a halfe of scalding water, stirring them together with a woodden slice, so let them stand to mascerate, close couered some two or three houres; then set them to the fire slowly to boyle, adding thereto three pounds of sugar in powder, letting them to samper together according to discretion, some houre or more; then keepe it for your vse.
The same made another way, but better by many degrees: take Roses at your pleasure, put them to boyle in faire water, hauing regard to the quantity; for if you haue many roses, you may take the more water; if fewer, the lesse water will serue: the which you shall boyle at the least three or foure houres, euen as you would boyle a piece of meat, vntill in the eating they be very tender, at which time the roses will lose their colour, that you would thinke your labour lost, and the thing spoyled. But proceed, for though the Roses haue lost their colour, the water hath gotten the tincture thereof; then shall you adde vnto one pound of Roses, foure pound of fine sugar in pure powder, and so according to the rest of the roses. Thus shall you let them boyle gently after the Sugar is put therto, continually stirring it with a woodden Spatula vntill it be cold, whereof one pound weight is worth six pound of the crude or raw conserue, as well for the vertues and goodnesse in taste, as also for the beautifull colour.
The making of the crude or raw conserue is very well knowne, as also Sugar roset, and diuers other pretty things made of roses and sugar, which are impertent vnto our historie, because I intend neither to make thereof an Apothecaries shop, nor a Sugar bakers storehouse, leauing the rest for our cunning confectioners."

"Rosmarinum Coronarium. Of Rosemarie.
Tragus writeth, that Rosemarie is spice in the Germane Kitchins, and other cold countries... The floures made vp into plates with sugar after the manner of Sugar Roset and eaten, comfort the heart, and make it merry, quicken the spirits, and make them more liuely."

"Crocus. Saffron.
...The chiues steeped in water, serue to illumine or (as we say) limne pictures and imagerie, as also to colour sundry meats and confections. It is with good successe giuen to procure bodily lust. The confections called Crocomagna, Oxycroceum, and Diacurcuma, with diuers other emplaisters and electuaries cannot be made without this Saffron."

"Saluia. Sage.
No man needs to doubt of the wholesomnesse of Sage Ale, being brewed as it should be with Sage, Scabious, Betony, Spikenard, Squinanth, and Fennel seeds.."

"Sesamum, siue Sisamum. Of the oylie Pulse called Sesamum.
...Men do not greedily feed of it alone, but make cakes thereof with honey, ... it is also mixed with bread..."

"Oxalis. Sorrell.
Sorrell doth vndoutedly coole and mightily dry; but because it is soure it likewise cutteth tough humors. The iuyce hereof in Sommer time is a profitable sauce in many meates, and pleasant to the taste... The leaues of Sorrell taken in good quantitie, stamped and strained into some Ale, and a posset made thereof, cooleth the sicke bodie, quencheth the thirst, and allayeth the heat of such as are troubled with a pestilent feuer, hot ague, or any great inflammation within. The leaues sodden, and eaten in manner of a Spinach tart, or eaten as meate, softneth and loosneth the belly, and doth attemper and coole the bloud exceedingly."

"Spinacia. Spinach.
It is eaten boiled, but yeeldeth little or no nourishment at all: it is something windie, and easily causeth a desire to vomit: it is vsed in sallades when it is young and tender. This herbe of all other pot-herbes and sallade herbes maketh the greatest diuersitie of meates and sallades."

Sugar Cane
"Arundo Saccharina. Sugar Cane.
...Of the iuyce of this Reed is made the most pleasant and profitable sweet, called Sugar; whereof is made infinite confectures, syrups, and such like, as also preseruing and conseruing of sundry fruits, herbes, and flowers, as Roses, Violets, Rosemary flowers, and such like, which still retaine with them the name of Sugar, as Sugar Roset, Sugar violet, &c. The which to write of would require a peculiar volume... it is not my purpose to make of my booke a Confectionarie, a Sugar Bakers furnace, a Gentlewomans preseruing pan..." [followed by a short description of sugar refining]

"Flos Solis maior. the floure of the Sun, or the Marigold of Peru.
...the buds before they be floured, boiled and eaten with butter, vineger, and pepper, after the manner of Artichokes, are exceeding pleasant meat, surpassing the Artichoke far in procuring bodily lust. The same buds with the stalks neere vnto the top (the hairinesse being taken away) broiled vpon a gridiron, and afterward eaten with oile, vineger, and pepper, haue the like property..."

[Sweet] Potato
"Sisarum Peruvianum, siue Batata Hispanorum. Potato's.
The Potato roots are among the Spaniards, Italians, Indians, and many other nations common and ordinarie meate; which no doubt are of mighty and nourishing parts... being tosted in the embers they lose much of their windinesse, especially being eaten sopped in wine.
Of these roots may be made conserues no lesse toothsome, wholesome, and dainty than of the flesh of Quinces: and likewise those comfortable and delicate meats called in shops Morselli, Placentulae, and diuers other such like.
These Roots may serue as a ground or foundation whereon the cunning Confectioner or Sugar-Baker may worke and frame many comfortable delicate Conserues, and restoratiue sweete meates.
They are vsed to be eaten rosted in the ashes. Some when they be so rosted infuse them and sop them in Wine; and others to giue them the greater grace in eating, do boyle them with prunes, and so eate them. And likewise others dresse them (being first rosted) with Oyle, Vineger, and salt, euerie man according to his owne taste and liking. Notwithstanding howsoeuer they bee dressed, they comfort, nourish, and strengthen the body, procuring bodily lust, and that with greedinesse."

"Draco herba. Tarragon.
...Tarragon is hot and drie in the third degree, and not to be eaten alone in sallades, but ioyned with other herbes, as Lettuce, Purslain, and such like..."

"Poma Amoris. Apples of Loue.
...In Spaine and those hot Regions they vse to eat the Apples prepared and boiled with pepper, salt, and oile: but they yeeld very little nourishment to the bodie, and the same nought and corrupt. Likewise they doe eat the Apples with oile, vineger and pepper mixed together for sauce to their meate, euen as we in these cold Countries doe Mustard."

"Tulipa. Tulipa, or the Dalmatian Cap.
...The roots preserued with sugar, or otherwise dressed, may be eaten, and are no vnpleasant nor any way offensiue meat, but rather good and nourishing."

"Rapum majus. Turnep.
...The bulbous or knobbed root, which is properly called Rapum or Turnep... is many times eaten raw, especially of the poore people in Wales, but most commonly boiled... It auaileth not a little after what manner it is prepared; for being boyled in water, or in a certaine broth, it is more moist, and sooner descendeth, and maketh the body more soluble; but being rosted or baked it drieth, and ingendreth lesse winde, and yet it is not altogether without winde... The young and tender shootes or springs of Turneps at their first comming forth of the ground, boiled and eaten as a sallade, prouoke vrine."

"Viola. Violets.
"There is likewise made of Violes and sugar certain plates called Sugar Violet, or Violet tables, or Plate, which is most pleasant and wholesome..."

"Nux Iuglans. Of the Wall-nut tree.
The fresh kernels of the nuts newly gathered are pleasant to the taste... The dry nuts are hot and dry, and those more which become oily and ranke... The greene and tender Nuts boiled in Sugar and eaten as Suckad, are a most pleasant and delectable meate, comfort the stomacke, and expell poyson... Milke made of the kernels, as Almond milke is made, cooleth and pleaseth the appetite of the languishing sicke body."

White Endive
"Intybum satiua. Garden Endiue.
...Endiue being sowen in the spring quickly commeth vp to floure, which seedeth in haruest, and afterward dieth. But being sowen in Iuly it remaineth till winter, at which time it is taken vp by the roots, and laid in the sunne or aire for the space of two houres; then will the leaues be tough, and easily endure to be wrapped vpon an heape, and buried in the earth with the roots vpward, where no earth can get within it (which if it did, would cause rottennesse) the which so couered may be taken vp at times conuenient, and vsed in sallades all the winter..."

See Cindy Renfrow's Culinary Gleanings