Friday, October 31, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - Early 18C Bavarian Gardens & Grounds

1701 Bavarian Views with Gardens.  Haimbhausen Castle. Michael Wening (Bavarian artist, 1645-1718)  Historico-Topographica Descriptio. Detail

Michael Wening (1645-1718) was a Bavarian engraver known for his depictions of cityscapes & views of stately homes, castles & monasteries in the Bavaria of his day.  His concept was to publish a visual account of Bavaria’s 4 districts called Historico-Topographica Descriptio. He began in 1696, & had finished more than 100 drawings within the first 2 months.  The 1st volume appeared in 1701, but work on the other 3 volumes was delayed by Austria’s occupation of Bavaria.  At least 1 volume was published after his death in 1718.

A great alternative view of the gardens & grounds from Michael Wening thanks to the Bavarian State Library & Daniel Seuffert of Munich, Germany!   

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - Early 18C English Gardens & Grounds - Brympton in Somerset, England

Brympton in Somerset Leonard Knyff (1652-1722) &  Johannes Kip (1653-1722)  1709 Folio. Copper Plate Engraving 1709 London for Britannia Illustrata Or Views of Several of the Queen s Palaces also of the Principal seats. Detail

Thomas d'Evercy purchased the estate in 1220 from the Chilterne family. The d'Evercy family derived their name from Evrecy, a village near Caen in Normandy. Thomas d'Evercy was part of the retinue of the Norman Earl of Devon, which is the reason he left the family estates on the Isle of Wight to reside in Somerset. D'Evercy represented Somerset & South Hampshire at the first Parliament of England. Following Thomas d'Evercy's death family records are scarce until the time of the last d'Evercy, Sir Peter, who twice represented Somerset in Parliament, under Edward II. The church next to the house, St Andrew's, dates from this period. Sir Peter founded a chantry at Brympton d'Evercy in 1306, endowing a priest with a messuage and 40 acres in the parish.  Sir Peter died in 1325, when the estate was described as "a certain capital messuage, with gardens and closes adjoining." The village at this time consisted of 17 smallholders, & three tenant farmers. In 1343, the estate was recorded as: "..a manor house sufficiently built with a certain garden adjoining planted with divers and many apple trees, the whole covery some two acres" the record notes forty householders all charged to serve their lord as "village blacksmith, drover or domestic servant."

 Sir Philip Sydenham, 3rd Baronet (1676–1739) owner of Brympton at the time of this engraving.

English Heritage tells us that the property subsequently passed through several hands before being sold in 1430 to John Stourton, who acquired it as part of the dowry for his daughter Joan, who in 1434 married John Sydenham.  Joan Sydenham outlived her husband, & at her death the estate passed to her grandson, John Sydenham II. Brympton remained the property of the Sydenham family until 1722; & during this period successive owners rebuilt & developed the medieval manor house. In the late 17C century, Sir John Posthumous Sydenham (d 1696) built a new garden or south facade in a style reportedly influenced by Inigo Jones &  John Webb, & perhaps inspired by similar work at Hinton St George, his wife’s family home. This facade, together with formal gardens comprising a terrace, bowling green, wilderness, & ponds, is shown in an early 18C view by Knyff.

Monday, October 27, 2014

Saturday, October 25, 2014

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - Early 18C English Gardens & Grounds - Williamstrip the Seat of Henry Ireton Esqr

Williamstrip the Seat of Henry Ireton Esqr Leonard Knyff (1652-1722) and Johannes Kip (1653-1722) 1709 Britannia Illustrata 1724 ed pub by Joseph Smith

Henry Ireton (c.1652-1711), of Williamstrip, was a grandson of Oliver Cromwell.  Ireton, the son of one of Cromwell’s generals, was a grandchild of the Lord Protector through his mother. Though his father, a regicide, had died in 1651, perhaps before Henry's birth, the family estates were confiscated after the Restoration & vested in the Duke of York.  After the Revolution of 1688, Ireton was taken into the royal household as an equerry to the King, with whom he served throughout the war in Holland.  Upon the death in 1692 of his father-in-law, the ex-Speaker Henry Powle, he acquired the manor of Williamstrip & other nearby properties not far from Cirencester.

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Sunday, October 19, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - Early 18C English Gardens & Grounds - Coberly the seat of Jonathan Castelman Esq.

Coberly the seat of Jonathan Castelman Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.

Bird's eye view of Coberley Court, Gloucestershire; includes church, stables, &  other buildings within walls of the grounds. The river Churn runs behind.  Alleys lead to the seat.  The geometrically arranged gardens are primarily used to raise vegetables & fruits. There are 4 parterres for recreational walking, recreation, relaxation, & sport. The walls are espaliered around the recreational area. The parish of Coberley contained 2 manors at the time of the Domesday survey.  One manor which lay in Rapsgate hundred, & is mentioned as belonging to Berchelai, continued in the Berkeleys, (a family distinct from the barons of the castle), till by marriage, in the reign of Hen. IV. it passed to Sir John Brtigg, the ancestor of the Chandos family, from whom it passed, at the beginning of the 17C, to the Duttons, of Sherbourne, &  was given in dower by John Dutton, Esq. with Lucy his daughter, to Sir Thomas Pope, Earl of Down. The Castleman family were afterwards proprietors by purchase, &  in 1720, Jonathan Castleman, Esq. sold it to the father of John Howe, first Baron Chedworth. See The History of the County of Gloucester Volume 1. 1803 

Friday, October 17, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - Early 18C English Gardens & Grounds - Badminton the Seat of the Duke of Beaufort

Badminton the Seat of the Duke of Beaufort Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.

Badminton House is a country house in Badminton, Gloucestershire, England, which has been the principal seat of the Dukes of Beaufort, since the late 17C, when the family moved from Raglan Castle, which had been ruined in the English Civil War.  In 1612, Edward Somerset, the 4th Earl of Worcester, bought from Nicholas Boteler his manors of Great and Little Badminton, called 'Madmintune' in the Domesday Book, while 1 century earlier the name 'Badimyncgtun' was recorded, held by that family since 1275. tells us that Henry, Duke of Beaufort, built the bulk of the present house in 1682. He had a real passion for avenues, & his park grounds were traversed by numbers of walks, 20 of them starting from one point like the centre of a star. It is said that he infected his neighbours with his own enthusiasm, so that they let him extend the avenues into their territory, & in this way he obtained more distant and glorious views. But the gardens cover a very large tract of land. They lie round a house in the middle of a great park, with the chief avenue 2 & a half miles long leading to the entrance. On the left of it there are parterres & a bowling-green. Behind the parterres, & in a straight line with them, are bosquets with fountains & finely designed paths; at the very end is a semicircular little room cut out of the hedge and containing 2 fountains.

Just from this engraving, we can see knot gardens & geometric beds edged with a low hedge of box or other shrubs, & the fountains intended to animate the garden, reflecting an interest in hydraulics.  Here the formal layout reflects the great gardens of France & Holland.  Terraces created from excavated & moved earth are used to control the irregular natural landscape and for balanced control & order.  The parterres evolved from the Tudor knots.  And in these grounds, avenues are used to direct the visitor to the seat of power, to direct the view of the gardens & surrounding landscape, & as an expression of welcome as well as status.  The trees in the avenues are a sort of army of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder at attention to warn as well as welcome.  The mazes & topiary are an expression of man's ultimate control over nature.  The maze allows the owner to "help" his visitors who might get lost in the towering green, living puzzle, which the owner built, of course.  Status & the impression of wisdom, culture, & intelligence were important for the owners of these Tudor gardens.  In today's world, they could have been a public relations consultant's dream.

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - Early 18C English Gardens & Grounds - Upper Dowdeswell the seat of Lionel Rich Esq.

Upper Dowdeswell the seat of Lionel Rich Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.  Bird's eye view of the manor house at Upper Dowdeswell, Gloucestershire; with formal gardens, vegetable gardens, & orchards.  A road passes to the right with a steep drop down to stream to the right.

Upper Dowdeswell was evidently the manor at Dowdeswell that Richard Beauchamp, perhaps the heir of Lord Beauchamp of Powicke, sold to John Carpenter, bishop of Worcester, in 1463 or 1464. The bishop's purchase was presumably part of his scheme for the re-endowment of the college of Westbury-onTrym, which held Upper Dowdeswell at the Dissolution. In 1544, the Crown granted it with the other property of Westbury college to Sir Ralph Sadler who sold it in 1549, to Richard Abington. Richard died in 1593, and his son Edmund in 1605, but Edmund's son Anthony had possession of the whole or part of the estate by 1588 and had a conveyance from his father in 1589. Anthony (d. 1631) was succeeded by his son John Abington, who in 1649, when under sequestration for royalist activities, sold the estate to Edward Rich, a lawyer. Edward died in 1681, and the estate was possibly retained by his widow Martha (d. 1684). Edward's grandson Lionel Rich held it in 1687, and at his death in 1736, was succeeded by his grandson Edward Gilbert Rich (d. 1753).

Monday, October 13, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - Early 18C English Gardens & Grounds - Broadwell, the Seat of Danvers Hodges

Broadwell the seat of Danvers Hodges Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712. 

British History Online tells us that Evesham Abbey claimed that King Coenred gave it Broadwell in 708. If the claim was just, the abbey later lost Broadwell for a time, because c. 1034 the estate was 'redeemed' from Canute for the abbey by Ælfweard, Bishop of London.  The abbey held Broadwell manor. The abbey was granted free warren in Broadwell in 1251, &  in 1276 claimed the assize of bread &  ale. Broadwell was held with the abbey's estate at Bourton-on-the-Water by service of one knight's fee.

The population of Broadwell may have fallen slightly between the 11C & the 16C. Domesday enumerated 48 persons, including 13 servi; in 1327, 20 people were assessed for the subsidy; in 1381, 71 people paid poll tax; &  in 1563 there were about 20 households. The evidence for population in the 17C is contradictory; for example, there were said to be about 24 families in 1650, while 42 householders were listed in the hearth tax assessment of 1672. The only violent disturbance known to have impinged on Broadwell occurred in 1646, when the parliamentary army came up on the rear of royalist forces between Donnington &  Stow.

Part of the abbey's estate in Broadwell was not sold with the manor in 1545. In 1619, the manor itself, apparently comprising only the demesne, was bought by Anthony Hodges &  William Chadwell, who divided it between themselves in 1621. The moiety of Anthony Hodges, which included the manor-house of which Hodges was in possession in 1619, descended in his family to Danvers Hodges (d. 1721), who devised his estate to his 3 nieces, Anne, Mary, &  Martha. 

Saturday, October 11, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - Early 18C English Gardens & Grounds - Barrington (Park) in Cambridgeshire, the Seat of Edmund Bray, Esquire

1708-1715 House & Gardens at Barrington (Park) in Cambridgeshire Barrington the Seat of Edmond Bray Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712. 

Bird's eye view of Barrington Hall (Park), in Cambridgeshire, with extensive grounds enclosed by wall; a river in foreground.  British History Online tells us that four estates in Barrington were enumerated in the Domesday Survey. The estates of Llanthony Priory in Barrington formed the manor of Great Barrington, (which the priory retained until the Dissolution. The priory was granted free warren there in 1292.  The Crown granted the manor in 1540 to John Guise of Elmore, who sold it in 1553 to Richard Monnington of Barrington and his son-in-law, Reginald Bray of Northmoor. The manor descended in the male line of the Bray family until 1735, passing from Reginald to his son Edmund (d. 1620), to Edmund's grandson Sir Giles (d. 1641), to Giles's son Sir Edmund (d. 1684), to Sir Edmund's son Reginald (d. 1688), to Reginald's son Edmund (fl. 1720).

In the mid-17th century c. 35 people, including the owners of freeholds that had never been part of Great Barrington manor, held land in the open fields of Great & Little Barrington.  The open fields north of the river were two in the 16C, called Combe field & Slowe field,  and were supervised by two overseers.  Barrington Park had apparently been formed out of the open fields by 1412, when there were complaints by the copyholders that the Prior of Llanthony had deprived them of land and animals.  There may have been a deer-park as early as 1327, when an inhabitant of Great Barrington was surnamed 'at the leapgate.' One tenant was inclosing land in Great Barrington in 1567, & there appears to have been piecemeal inclosure during the next century & a half, including (to judge from the lines of former walls) the enlargement of the park. In 1704 there were still two open fields, but the process of inclosure was completed fairly soon afterwards.

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Tuesday, October 7, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - Early 18C English Gardens & Grounds - Staunton Harold in the County of Leicester. England

Staunton Harold in the County of Leicester. EnglandLeonard Knyff (1652-1722) and Johannes Kip (1653-1722) 1709 Britannia Illustrata 1724 ed pub by Joseph Smith 

Parks & Gardens UK tells us that Staunton appears in the Domesday book as one of 210 "lordships" granted to Henry de Ferraris by William of Normandy, after the Conquest.  It was then ‘enfeoffed' (leased) to a feudal Saxon underling, Harold de Lecha.  It became known as Staunton Harold to distinguish it from other Stauntons (stony towns) throughout the country.

There was a deer park at Staunton by 1324 & later, two - the Little Park & the Great Park.  The Little Park is believed to have occupied the present parkland & therefore is of particular importance at Staunton Harold as a continuous feature of the landscape from that date.

In 1423, Ralph Shirley, one of Henry V's leading commanders at Agincourt, married Margaret, Heiress of John de Staunton.  The Staunton estate was then in the ownership of the Shirley family until 1954.

There is no documentary evidence to suggest any designed landscape at Staunton Harold before the mid to late 17C, although there would have been gardens, orchards & farms to support the community associated with the house.  In 1611, George Shirley was created 1st Baronet Ferrers by James I.  In 1623, the Great Park was turned into farms.

In 1653, Sir Robert Shirley, the 4th Baronet, built a church next to the Hall.  It is a significant building as it is the only church built in England during the period of the Commonwealth. Shirley's son, who was created Baron Ferrers in 1677, & Earl Ferrers in 1711, set about "aggrandising the hotch potch of Jacobean and earlier buildings which he had inherited." He added a new north-east front to the Hall & laid out extensive formal gardens around it. The location of the Church would have dictated the position of these gardens, which might otherwise have been positioned to the south of the house.

A contemporary described Shirley as "a great improver of gardening & parking." Country Life in 1913 states that "it is probable that George London who had laid out the neighbouring gardens at Melbourne may have advised him.  London certainly knew the garden & writes in 1701 to Thomas Coke of Melbourne of two visitors setting out to see gardens & plantations proposing to see "My Lord Chesterfield's, Lord Ferrers' & the Duke of Devonshire's."

The Hall & Gardens were illustrated by Leonard Knyff (around 1702) & engraved by Kip (1706).  A 1995 report describes them from the engraving: "The main garden, terraces ranged either side of a broad axial path & with a canal across the bottom, lay north-east of the Hall.  A summerhouse at the east end of the main cross axis adjoined the west end of a predecessor of the present causeway bridge, to the south of which, past the chapel, extended the rectangular Church Pool.  West of the southern part of the Pool was a roughly square block of woodland, possibly a wilderness.  Further pools lay along the valley bottom north of the Hall gardens." 

Nichols quotes a Mr Wooley's description of the garden in 1712, from his MS History of Derbyshire as follows:  "It has a handsome new front towards the gardens... the gardens are well-watered with fountains & canals, very good aviaries, a decoy, & stations for a great many exotic fowls.  The park & woods about it are large & reach within half a mile of Caulk (sic) & a mile of Melbourne but being seated in a clay soil, it is somewhat dirty coming to it....the east end of the church abuts on a very large canal, the biggest in all the county."  According to Nichols, the gardens lie on the north west side of the house, but, in fact, they lie to the north-east "consisting of several parterres in easy descents from the house, which add a gracefulness to the one & the other."

The height of one of the fountains was enhanced by the water being thrown from & then spilled down over a prominent stone column, not unlike the giulio in the Octagon Lake at Stowe.  This can be seen on the Kip engraving.  According to Nichols, MacKay in his tour through England early in the reign of George I, calls Staunton Harold "a noble seat... & the gardens adorned with statues"  For the first half of the 18C, there were few changes.

Sunday, October 5, 2014

Garden History 18C Over There - English Landscape Painter & Portraitist Arthur Devis 1712-1787

1749 Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) Robert Gwillym and Family

During the 1990s, I was trying to see both the English & American landscapes as those living in the 18C did. One of my favorite artists Arthur Devis allowed me to see both the English landscapes & the people who designed & lived in them. Here are a few of his paintings.

1749 Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) The Thomas Cave Family

Arthur Devis was born in Preston, Lancashire, England, in 1712, the eldest son of Anthony Devis & Ellen Rauthmell. He left Preston as a young man to study in London with the sporting & topographical painter Peter Tillemans.

1751 Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) Sir George und Lady Strickland im Park von Boynton Hall

1751 Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) The James Family

After the Tillemans' retirement in 1733, Devis returned to Preston, & his earliest dated landscape was in 1735. His earliest dated portraits are from 1741, & by the following year he is recorded working in London. In 1741, he married Elizabeth Faulkner; & apparently the couple had 22 children.

1754 Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) The Clavey family in their garden at Hampstead

In 1745, well established as a painter of small-scale portraits & conversation pieces, he settled on Great Queen Street in Lincoln's Inn Fields as his base. Many of his early commissions came from Lancashire Jacobite families obtained through his father's local connections. By 1752, he took on an apprentice, George Senhouse, but discharged him after 3 years for idleness; he had at least 3 other students during that period.

1758 Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) Alicia and Jane Clarke

From 1761, Devis exhibited irregularly at the Free Society of Artists, of which he became president in 1768. In 1763, Francis Vincent (then a Barrister of the Inner Temple) commissioned Devis to paint himself, his wife Mercy & daughter Ann at Weddington Hall. Devis never exhibited at the 'Society of Artists' or the 'Royal Academy of Arts' & never competed for admission to those societies.

1763 Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) Francis Vincent, his Wife Mercy, and Daughter Ann, of Weddington Hall, Warwickshire

In later life Devis was active as a restorer; between 1777 & 1778, he was paid 1,000 pounds for cleaning & repairing the Painted Hall at Greenwich. In 1783, he sold his collection of pictures & retired to Brighton, where he died on 25 July 1787.

Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) Henry Fiennes Clinton,9th Earl of Lincoln, with his wife Catherine and his son George on the great terrace at Oatlands

Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) Mrs Edward Travers in a landscape garden

Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) On the grounds of Ranelagh

Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) Sir Nathaniel and Lady Caroline Curzon

Arthur Devis (English artist, 1712-1787) The Edgar Children

Friday, October 3, 2014