Friday, May 10, 2019

Early American Plant Lists - 1759 Moravian settlement of Bethabara, NC - The Kitchen Garden

Bethabara, North Carolina, by Christian Gottlieb Reuter, 1766, Wachovia Area, NC. Moravian Archives, Southern Province,  MESDA

The Moravians were among the 1st Protestant groups in Europe during the 15C. For more than 300 years, they suffered religious persecution, which caused them to periodically uproot their community or go into hiding.  By the early 1700s, they had fled to Germany, where they built the town of Herrnhut.  From there, they sent missionaries to many areas in the world, including the British America colonies in North America, where they established a strong foothold in Pennsylvania.  In an effort to carry their religion to other parts of the American British colonies, in 1753, Moravians purchased a 100,000-acre tract in central North Carolina. There, missionaries established Bethabara as a temporary settlement on the new frontier; while they laid plans for a more permanent central town, which would become known as Salem.

The Upland Garden at Bethabara, laid out and planted by Bro. Lung, May 1, 1759. Bethabara (from the Hebrew, meaning "House of Passage," the Biblical name of the traditional site of John The Baptist & of the Baptism of Jesus Christ) was a village located in what is now Forsyth County, North Carolina. It was the site where 12 men from the Moravian Church first settled in 1753, in an abandoned cabin in the 100,000-acre (400 km2) tract of land the church had purchased from Lord Granville & dubbed Wachovia.

“Old World gardens in the New World: the gardens of the Moravian settlement of Bethabara in North Carolina, 1753-72” by Flora Ann L. Bynum, Journal of Garden History, 16/2 (1996), 70-86. Southern Garden History Plant List.

Allium cepa Onions
Allium sativum Garlic
Anthriscus cerefolium Kerbel (possibly chervil
Apium graveolens, var. dulce Celery
Armoracia rusticana [Cochlearia armoracia] Horseradish
Asparagus officinalis Asparagus
Beta vulgaris Mangolds (beets)
Brassica oleracea, Botrytis group Cauliflower
Brassica oleracea, Capitata group Cabbage
Brassica oleracea, Gongyloces group Kohlrabi
Capsicum annuum, Longum group Spanish pepper; Chili and red
Cochlearia officinalis Spoonwort, scurvy grass
Cornus sanguinea Dogwood (blood-twig or European)
Cucumis melo, Reticulatus group Melons
Cydonia oblonga Quince
Daucus carota var. sativus Carrots
Dianthus caryophyllus or D. plumarius hy. Cloves
Humulus lupulus Hops
Lactuca sativa Lettuce
Lepidium sativum Cress
Narcissus pseudonarcissus Daffodils
Origanum majorana
[Majorana hortensis] Marjoram
P crispum, var. tuberosum Turnip-rooted parsley, Hamburg parsley
Pastinaca sativa Parsnips
Petroselinum crispum Parsley, curly
Phaseolus vulgaris Black beans
Pisum sativum var. sativum Sweet peas
Raphanus sativus Radish
Ribes uva-crispa
 [R. grossularia] Gooseberries
Spinacia oleracea Spinach
Syringa vulgaris Lilacs
Thymus vulgaris Thyme
Tropaeolum majus, T. minus Nasturtium 'Kaper'
Valerianella locusta
[V. olitoria] Field salad or corn salad