Wednesday, January 12, 2022

Garden Design & Plant Lists - The Hortus Medicus Garden - 1761 Moravian North Carolina Settlement of Bethabara

Bethabara, North Carolina, by Christian Gottlieb Reuter, 1766, Wachovia Area, NC. Moravian Archives, Southern Province,  MESDA

The Moravians were among the first Protestant groups in Europe during the 15C. For more than 300 years, they suffered religious persecution, which caused them to periodically  uproot their community or go into hiding.  By the early 1700s, they had fled to Germany, where they built the town of Herrnhut.  From there, they sent missionaries to many areas in the world, including the British America colonies in North America, where they established a strong foothold in Pennsylvania.  In an effort to carry their religion to other parts of the American British colonies, in 1753, Moravians purchased a 100,000-acre tract in central North Carolina. There, missionaries established Bethabara as a temporary settlement on the new frontier; while they laid plans for a more permanent central town, which would become known as Salem.

The Hortus Medicus Garden at Bethabara, planted by Bro.August Schubert, June 23, 1761. Bethabara (from the Hebrew, meaning "House of Passage," the Biblical name of the traditional site of John The Baptist & of the Baptism of Jesus Christ) was a village located in what is now Forsyth County, North Carolina. It was the site where 12 men from the Moravian Church first settled in 1753, in an abandoned cabin in the 100,000-acre (400 km2) tract of land the church had purchased from Lord Granville & dubbed Wachovia.

“Old World gardens in the New World: the gardens of the Moravian settlement of Bethabara in North Carolina, 1753-72” by Flora Ann L. Bynum, Journal of Garden History, (1996),  Southern Garden History Plant List.

Brother August Schubert, June 23, 1761 in the Kitchen Garden, the Lane and the Hops garden planted the following in the Hortus Medicus at Bethabara.

Achillea millefolium Yarrow
Althaea officinalis Marshmallow
Anethum graveolens Dill
Angelica archangelica
[A. officinalis]
Aquilegia vulgaris Columbine
Artemisia abrotanum Southernwood
Artemisia absinthium Wormwood
Artemisia maritima Wormseed, old-woman
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort
Bellis perennis Daisy, probably English daisy
Borago officinalis Borage
Carthamus tinctorius Safflower, wild saffron
Carum carvi Caraway
Centaurium erythraea
[C. minus, C. umbellatum]
Common centaury
Chamaemelum nobile
[Anthemis noblis]
Roman chamomile
Chamaemelum sp. Red chamomile
Chrysanthemum vulgare Tansy
Citrus medica Citrus, true citron
Cnicus benedictus
[Carduus benedictus]
Blessed thistle
Cochlearia officinalis Scurvy grass
Consolida regalis
[Delphinium consolida]
Coriandrum sativum Coriander
Cucumis melo Melons, mushmelons
Cucumis sativus Cucumbers
Foeniculum vulgare Fennel
Fumaria officinalis Fumitory
Hyssopus officinalis Hyssop
Inula helenium Elecampane
Lathyrus odoratus Spanish vetch, possibly sweet peas
Lavandula angustifolia
[L. officinalis, L. vera, L. spica]
Levisticum officinale Lovage
Lilium album White or Madonna lily
Matricaria recutita
[M. chamomilla]
Wild chamomile
Melilotus officinalis Sweet clover, melilot
Melissa officinalis Balm
Mentha aquatica var. crispa Curly Mint
Nigella sativa Fennel flower
Ocinum basilicum Sweet basil
Origanum majorana
[Majorana hortensis]
Sweet marjoram
Papaver rhoeas Poppy, red, field, or corn
Papaver somniferum Poppy, white or opium
Petroselinum crispum Curly parsley
Pimpinella anisum Anise
Plantago minor Plantain
Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort
Rheum rhabarbarum
[R. rhaponticum]
Rosa alba White rose
Rosa canina Dog rose
Rosa gallica Roses, red and white
Rosa officinalis Apothecary's rose
Rumex acetosa Sorrell
Ruta graveolens Rue
Salvia hormium Hormium
Salvia officinalis Sage
Scabiosa atropurpurea Scabiosa
Scorzonera hispanica Scorzonera
Silybum marianum
[Carduus marianus]
St Mary's thistle
Smyrnium perfoliatum Alexanders
Stachys officinalis
[Betonica officinalis]
Symphytum officinale Comfrey
Tragopogon porrifolium Salsify
Tropaeolum majus or T. minus Spanish cress, nasturtium
Viola odorata Violet