Saturday, May 11, 2019

Early American Plant Lists - Thomas Jefferson's Vegetables

Thomas Jefferson’s Plant List From His Garden Book, 1767-1821 Dates refer to first mention of a plant in Jefferson’s documents, which include Thomas Jefferson’s Garden Book, edited by Edwin Betts, 1944, unpublished memoranda at the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Library of Congress and Princeton University Library. Quotation marks designate varieties undescribed in the literature and are generally Jefferson’s personal names.
List compiled by Peter Hatch.

Vegetables

Artichoke, Globe 1794
 Cynara Scolymus 1808
 Green 1808
Red
Artichoke, Jerusalem 1794
Helianthus tuberosa
("Topinambours") 1767

Asparagus 1807
"Cooper's Pale Green" 1804
"East India"

Bean (6 species)
Asparagus Bean
Vigna unguiculata 1809
ssp. sesquipedalis
Broad Bean 1774
Vicia faba 1794
Early Mazagan ("Mazareen") 1794
Horse 1774
Windsor
Caracalla 1792
Vigna caracalla
Garbanzo ("garavance") 1814
Cicer arientium
Green 1774
Phaseolus vulgaris
"Snaps"
"Alexander" 1820
Arikara ("Ricara") 1807
 "Bess" 1813
"Blue speckled snap" 1794
 "dwarf" 1809
"dwarf beans of Holland 1786
 "forward" 1809
 "golden dwarf 1794
 "grey snaps" 1809
 "ground snap" 1794
 "Italian" 1820
 "red snaps" 1809
"Red speckled snap" 1794
Refugee ("Switzerland gray") 1786
 "Roman" 1820
 "Tuscan" 1820
 "White snap" 1794
"yellow snaps" 1809
"Haricots"
 "Alleghany" 1794
 "early Sesbon" 1794
French Kidney ("French dry haricot") 1814
Friholio ("the red bean called Friholio") 1813
 "haricots roussatres" 1810
 "hominy" 1812
 "long haricot" 1812
 "Julian" 1786
 "white haricot" 1819
Wild Goose ("red blossomed kidney bean") 1819
Lima Bean
Phaseolus lunatus 1777
 Carolina White 1794
 "large lima" 1815
Sugar or Bushel 1794
Scarlet Runner ("Arbor")
Phaseolus coccineus 1791

Beet
Beta vulgaris 1774
“Red" 1774
"Scarlet" 1809
"white" 1774
Black Salsify
Scorzonera hispanica 1812

Broccoli
Brassica oleracea 1767
Black 1824

Cauliflower, White 1809
"December" 1824
"Florence" 1824
"March" 1824
"October" 1824
"Palermo" 1824
Purple, Early Purple 1809
Roman (syn/ w/ "Purple"?) 1809

Brussels Sprouts
Brassica oleracea 1812

Cabbage
Brassica oleracea 1771
"Aberdeen" 1812
Battersea 1816
"Cattle" 1812
Dwarf Early 1813
“early" 1807
"Giant" 1809
"Large White" 1824
“May" 1812
"Neapolitan" 1777
"purple cabbage from Rome" 1777
Red 1774
Savoy 1811
"Curled Cabbage of Paisinetta" 1824
 "Curled Savoy" 1811
 "Curled Schiane" 1824
 Green-curled 1814
"Savoy Green" 1812
 Yellow Savoy 1812
Scotch 1794
"Spanish" ("Cavol Capuccio Spagnola di Pisa") 1774
Sugarloaf 1809
Turnip 1801
York, Early York 1809

Carrot
Daucus carota 1774
“early" 1812
“large” 1812
"orange" 1809
"yellow" 1811

Cauliflower
Brassica oleracea 1767
Early 1809

Celery
Apium graveolens var. dulce 1767
Red 1809
Solid 1774

Chives
Allium schoenoprasum 1812
Corn Salad
Valerianella locusta 1794

Cress
Lepidum sativum,
Barbarea sp. 1774
"English" 1794
"Italian" 1774
Upland ("mountain") Barbarea verna 1794

Cucumber
Cucumis sativus 1767
“early" 1794
"early green" 1812
"early white" 1812
"forward" 1794
Early Frame ("frame") 1818
Gherkin Cucumis anguria 1812
Long Green 1811
Serpentine ("mammoth") Trichosanthes anguina 1825

Eggplant ("Melonzoni") 
Solanum melongena 1809
Prickly 1812
Purple 1812
White 1812

Endive
Cichorium Endivia 1777
Broad-leaved, "broad" 1794
Green Curled 1809
"smooth" 1809
“winter" 1794

French Sorrel
Rumex acetosa 1774

Garlic
Allium sativum 1774
Gourd
Lagenaria sp. ? 1806

Hop
Humulus lupulus 1794

Horseradish 1794
Armoracia rusticana

Kale
Brassica oleracea 1809
"Buda" 1809
"Delaware" 1809
"Malta" 1809
"Russian" 1812
"Scotch" 1809
"sprout” 1812

Leek
Allium porrum 1794
"common" 1812
"flag" 1812

Lettuce
Lactuca sativa 1767
Brown Dutch ("Dutch brown") 1809
"cabbage" 1794
"Ice" 1809
"Loaf,” "White loaf” 1809
"long leaved" 1794
Marseilles 1809
Roman 1804
Silesia 1819
Tennis Ball 1809
"white" 1812

Melon
Cucumis melo 1774
Cantaloupe 1774
"Cette" @1812
"Egyptian" @1812
"Zatte di Massa" 1774
"Chinese" 1809
Citron, Citrullus lanatus 1794
“green" 1794
"Miami" 1811
"Pepone Arancini. di Pistoia" 1774
Persian 1812
Pineapple 1794
"Venice" 1794
"Winter" 1805

Mustard
Brassica sp. 1777
"Durham" 1812
Red, Brassica nigra 1774
White, Brassica hirta 1794

Nasturtium
Tropaeolum majus 1774

Okra
Hibiscus esculentus 1809

Onion
Allium cepa 1774
Madeira 1778
Tree, Allium cepa var. viviparum ("hanging") 1809
White Spanish 1774

Orach
Atriplex hortensis 1813

Parsley
Petroselinum crispum 1774
Common, plain-leaved 1809
Curled ("double") 1774

Parsnip
Pastinaca sativa 1774

Pea, Garden
Pisum sativum 1767
"cluster or bunch" 1774
Charlton (Hotspur) 1768
 "dwarf peas of Holland. for frames" 1786
"earliest of all" 1767
Early Pearl (Nonesuch) 1778
“early" 1794
"early dwarf" 1794
"forward" 1774
"forward peas of Marly" 1786
"forwardest" 1767
Frame, Early Frame 1809
Hotspur 1809
Leadman's Dwarf (Early Dwarf Sugar?) 1809
"middling" 1767
"latest of all," "latter," "latest" 1767
“Leitch’s pea” 1820
"Leitch' s frame" 1820
"Leitch's latter” 1821
Marrowfat 1773
“May" 1820
Prussian Blue ("blue Prussian") 1809
Spanish Morotto 1768

Pea, Field ("cow," "Crowder") 
Pisum sativum var. arvense
"African early" 1809
"Albany" 1808
Black-eye 1774
“early" 1809
“French" 1794
"Black Indian" 1794
Crowder, "gray" 1809
"pearl-eye" 1794
"Ravenscroft" 1807
"Ravensworth" 1808
White-eyed 1794

Peanut ("Peendars")
Arachis hypogaea 1794

Pepper, Bell
Capsicum annuum 1774
Bullnose 1812
“Major" 1812
Pepper, Cayenne
Capsicum annuum 1767
Texas Bird, Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum ("Capsicum
Techas,” "minutissimum") 1814
Pepper Grass
Lepidum sativum 1774

Pumpkin
Cucurbita pepo var. pepo and C. maxima 1774
"black" 1774
"long pumpkin from Malta" 1809
Potato, C. moschata 1794
"solid pumpkin from S. America" 1809
"white" 1774

Radicchio
Cichorium intybus 1774

Radish
Raphanus sativus 1809
"black" 1812
"leather coal" 1824
Oil 1809
"Rose" 1786
"Salmon" 1774
Scarlet, Early Scarlet 1809
"summer" 1809
"violet N.Y." 1817
"White radish. round & forward" 1786

Rape
Brassica napus 1774
"green" 1794

Rhubarb ("esculent rhubarb")
Rheum rhabarbarum or Rheum sp. 1809

Rutabaga
Brassica napus 1795

Salsify
Tragopogon porrifolius 1774
"Columbian" 1812
"Missouri" 1807

Sea Kale
Crambe maritima 1809

Sesame
Sesamum orientale 1808

Shallot
Allium cepa 1774

Spinach
Spinacia oleracea 1771
Prickly-seeded ("winter,” "prickly") 1809
Smooth-seeded, ("Summer,” "Round-leaved") 1809

Squash
Cucurbita pepo vars. pepo and melopepo 1794
Cymbling 1795
“soft" 1809
"warted" 1813
"Cape du Verd" @1812
"Cape of Good Hope" @1812
"long crooked & warted" 1807
Summer @1812
 "Warted" 1809
"Winter" 1815
Winter Crooked Neck @1812

Sweet Potato
Ipomoea batatas 1786

Tomato
Lycopersicon lycopersicon 1809
"dwarf" 1817
"Spanish tomato 1811

Turnip
Brassica rapa 1774
Early Dutch 1812
"English" 1794
"forward" ("Raves hatives") 1786
"Frazer's new" 1808
Hanover 1794
Long French 1809
“rose” ("Raves conteur de rose”) 1786
"Summer" 1811

Watermelon
Citrullus lanatus 1774
"Cocomere di Pistoia" 1774
"Cocomere di seme
Neapolitane" 1774
"Mexican" @1820
"Roman" 1809
“Savannah” @1812