Saturday, April 20, 2019

Early American Plant Lists - Thomas Jefferson's Fruits

Thomas Jefferson’s Plant List From His Garden Book, 1767-1821 Dates refer to first mention of a plant in Jefferson’s documents, which include Thomas Jefferson’s Garden Book, edited by Edwin Betts, 1944, unpublished memoranda at the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Library of Congress and Princeton University Library. Quotation marks designate varieties not described in the literature and are generally Jefferson’s personal names.
List compiled by Peter Hatch.

FRUITS

Almond
 Prunus dulcis var. dulcis
 "Almonds from the Streights" 1774
 "bitter almonds" 1774
 “hardshelled sweet almonds from Cadiz. from Harriet Hackley" 1810
 "hard shelled bitter almond" 1774
 "sweet almonds with smooth rinds" 1774
 "sweet almonds with hairy rinds" 1774
 "sweet almonds with hard shells" 1774
 "a Virginian Almond," probably a native nut like the bitternut (Juglans cinerea) or indigenous hazelnut (Corylus americana) 1774

Apple 1774
 Malus pumila
 Calville Blanc d'Hiver ("Calvite”) 1804
 Clarkes’s Pearmain (possibly syn. Golden Pearmain) 1796
 "Detroit large white" (probably syn. with White Bellflower) 1804
 Detroit Red ("Detroit large red") 1804
 Early Harvest 1791
 English Codlin 1778
 Esopus Spitzenberg 1791
 Golden Wilding 1778
 Hewes’s Crab (Hughes, Crab, Virginia Crab) 1796
 "iron wilding" 1810
 "mammoth" (possibly syn. with Gloria Mundi) 1809
 Medlar Russetin 1778
 Newtown Pippin (Albemarle Pippin)"ox-eye striped" 1769
 (?Vandevere or Newtown Spitzenberg) 1804
 Pomme Gris ("pumgray") 1804
 "russetin" (likely Golden Russet or Roxbury Russet) 1778
 Taliaferro 1778
 White, Virginia White, or Bray's White ("white") 1778

Apricot
 Prunus armeniaca 1769
 Angelica 1804
 "Bordeaux" 1810
 Brussels 1791
 Early Red 1804
 Large Early 1791
 Moor Park ("German") 1791
 "Melon" 1787
 Peach ("peach-apricot") 1804

Cherry
 Prunus avium, P. cerasus 1769
 August 1783
 Black Heart ("forward" and "latter") 1778
 Bleeding Heart 1783
 "Broadnax" 1773
 Carnation 1773
 Cornus Mas ("Ciriege corniole") 1774
 Early May ("May," Prunus fruticosa) 1767
 English Morello ("Myrilla,” "large Morella") 1778
 "Kentish"
 (Early Richmond and/or Late Kentish) 1778
 May Duke ("Duke") 1778
 "Tuckahoe grey heart" 1811
 White Heart 1778

Currant
 Ribes sp. 1770
 European Red (Ribes sativum) 1778
 Sweet-scented or Buffalo (Ribes odoratum) 1807
 Yellow (Ribes aureum) 1807

Fig
 Ficus carica 1769
 "ancient"
 Angelique ("white Angelic") 1789
 “large” 1789
 Marseilles ("white") 1789
 “purple" 1817

Gooseberry
 Ribes uva-crispa 1767
 "Red” 1812

Grape
 Vitis vinifera', V. rotundifolia", V. vulpina
 "Abrostine red" (Colorino?) 1807
 "Abrostine white" (Picolit?) 1807
 Aleatico 1807
 Alexander ("Cape,” "Cape of Good Hope grape") 1802
 "Black cluster" (Pinot Noir?) 1807
 Black Hamburg 1807
 Bland 1822
 Chasselas Dore ("Chasselas") 1807
 Chasselas Rose ("Brick coloured") 1796
 Furmint ("Tokay") 1807
 "Lachrima Christi" (Tinto di Spagna?) 1807
 Luglienga ("Great July") 1807
 "Malaga" (Muscat of Alexandria?) 1807
 Mammolo Toscano ("Mammole") 1807
 Morgiano ("Margiano") 1807
 "Muscadine" (Chasselas Blanc?) 1807
 Muscat Blanc ("white Frontignac") 1807
 Norton’s Seedling 1824
 "Piedmont malmsey" (Malvasia Bianca?) 1807
 Olivette Blanche ("Gallettas") 1807
 "Purple Syrian" 1807
 Red Hamburg 1807
 Regina ("Queen's grape") 1807
 Sangiovese ("San Giovetto”) 1807
 Seralamanna (Muscat of Alexandria?) 1807
 Scuppernong 1817
 "Smyra grape without seeds" 1807
 "Spanish raisins" 1774
 "Toccai” or "Tokay" (Tocai Rosso?) 1807
 Trebbiano 1807
 "White Sweet Water" 1796

 Nectarine
 Prunus persica var. nucipersica 1769
 "Kaskaskia soft" 1810
 Red Roman 1791
 Yellow Roman 1791

Peach
 Prunus persica 1771
 Alberges 1804
 Algiers Yellow 1791
 Apple (Pesca mela, "Melon") 1804
 "Balyal’s white, red, & yellow plumb peaches" 1786
 “General Jackson’s” 1807
 Green Nutmeg 1791
 Heath Cling 1813
 Indian Blood Cling ("black Georgia plumb peach") 1810
 Indian Blood Free ("black soft peaches from Georgia") 1804
 "Lady's favorite" 1807
 Lemon Cling ("Lemon," "Canada Carolina") 1807
 Maddelena 1804
 "Magdalene" (either Red Magdalen or White Magdalene) 1806
 Malta 1813
 "mammoth" 1807
 Morris’s Red Rareripe ("Italian red-freestone") 1807
 Morris’s White Rareripe ("Italian-White-freestone”) 1807
 "October," "yellow clingstone of October" 1807
 Oldmixon Cling 1807
 Oldmixon Free 1807
 “plumb" 1772
 Poppa di Venere (“Teat,” Breast of Venus) 1804
 Portugal 1780
 San Jacopo (St. James?) 1804
 "soft" ("October soft," "November soft," "Timothy Lomax's soft,” “large white soft,”
“fine white soft,” “large yellow soft," "early soft," etc.) 1810
 Vaga Loggia Cling 1804
 Vaga Loggia Free 1804
 White blossomed (?) 1810

Pear
 Prunus communis 1769
 Beurre Gris 1791
 Crassane 1789
 "English" (“3 kinds") 1778
 "fine late large" 1778
 "forward" 1778
 Meriwether 1778
 Royal 1789
 Seckel 1807
 "Sugar" 1778
 St. Germaine, or Richmond 1807
 Virgouleuse 1789

Plum
 Prunus domestics, P. insititia, etc.
 Apricot 1780
 Boccon de Re 1804
 Brignole 1791
 Chickasaw, Prunus angustifolia ("Cherokee") 1812
 Cooper’s Large 1807
 Drap d'Or 1780
 Damson ("Damascene") 1778
 "Florida" (probably Prunus umbellata) 1814
 Green Gage, Reine Claude ("Reginia Claudia") 1783
 "Horse" (Prunus americana or Damson, P. insititia) 1778
 Imperatrice, Blue Imperatrice 1780
 "Large Blue" 1810
 "Large white sweet" 1780
 Magnum Bonum, Mogul, Yellow Egg, White Imperial 1778
 Mirabelle 1804
 Muscle 1767
 Orleans 1780
 Red Imperial 1780
 "Regina" (possible Queen Mother, or Damas Violet) 1804
 "Purple Prune" 1807
 Royal 1780
 "Small green plum" 1778
 White Imperial 1780

Pomegranate
 Punica granatum 1769
 Quince
 Cydonia oblonga 1769

Strawberry
 Fragaria sp. 1766
 Alpine (Fragaria vesca) 1774
 Chili (F. chiloensis) 1798
 Hudson (F. x ananassa?) 1812
 "large garden" ("Fragoloni di giardino") 1774
 "May" ("Fragoloni Mazzese") 1774
 Scarlet (F. virginiana) 1766
 "White" ( F. vesca or F. moschata) 1782

Raspberry
 Rubus idaeus 1770
 "Common" 1811
 "Monthly" 1809
 "Mountain" (Rubus strigosus) 1821
 Red Antwerp 1790
 White Antwerp 1807